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I. Ex-Con Basics
II. Quantum Space-time and the Evolution of the Universe
III. Energy and Matter Structures
IV. Gravity
V. Quantum Relativity
VI. Time Accelerated Quantum Mechanics


With Albert Einstein's relativity theories (Special Relativity, 1905, and General Relativity, 1915) and with quantum theory physicists have been able to reduce all physical forces in the Universe to four basic types electromagnetic, gravitational, weak nuclear, and strong nuclear. While three of the forces, electromagnetic, weak nuclear, and strong nuclear have been significantly related to each other through quantum theory, it has not yet been possible to relate all four of these forces to each other in a logical, straight-forward way. I believe that I have come up with an approach to describing physical laws in such a way that a straight forward unification is possible. This approach is based upon an alternative explanation to the presently well accepted explanation of the creation and expansion of the Universe, the "Big Bang" theory. Instead of assuming that the Universe is simply the result of a primordial big bang, assume instead that at one time the Universe existed in a condition of unity, similar to the unity that is assumed to have existed before the big bang, and that time and space as we know it began when the size of space, as measured in terms of the velocity of light, began to contract relative to itself and relative to the overall size of the Universe.

With this view there would still be an actual expansion of the overall size of the Universe (this creating space) accompanying the contraction of the size of space within the Universe, but this would eventually cease and the apparent expansion of the Universe that we observe today would be fully the result of a contraction in the size of space within the Universe.

This point of view means that time and space within the Universe began as the result of a "Big Shrink". Also with this view the size of all entities comprised of energy and matter would also contract with time, at the same rate as does the speed of light and the space between entities, and thus a constant relative size for all entities within the Universe is maintained. Also with this view the apparent velocity between galaxies separated by large distances in the Universe is actually the result of the basic units space, segments of space with a size on the order of Planck's length, that lay between those galaxies actually contracting in size while the positions of those galaxies remain constant. This then clearly explains why even though distant galaxies appear to be receding from us at great velocities they are not in actual dilated frames. They are not dilated because their apparent motion is not actual motion, it is caused by the contraction of the size of the fundamental units of space between them and us. This is how genuine motionless non- dilated frames can exist at all positions within the Universe, with apparent motion perceived between those positions.

In regards to the red shifting of the light from distant receding galaxies, the wavelengths of radiation released into space in the past from those galaxies will be longer at the time they are released because of the greater distance scales of the past, but those wavelengths also undergo the same general contraction experienced by everything else in the Universe. However, they also undergo an apparent expansion due to the contraction of the basic units of space that lay between successive nodes of those wavelengths, this producing a red shift in the wavelength. The greater the waves' time in free space, the greater the shift.

An objection that some may have to this concept is that this then means that energy and mass are being lost in the process. However, it is possible that the rate of contraction is only great at the initial stages of the Universe's creation, the first few nanoseconds or so, when, according to present day thought the Universe expanded at an extreme rate and the primordial energy of the initial singularity differentiated into the forms of energy that we perceive now. Thus, in terms of the contraction approach, at this stage there would not be a loss of energy, but instead simply a differentiation, or breaking down, of the primordial energy into present forms of energy. After this stage the rate of contraction can be so small (on the order of -1/t^2 per Planck time unit, where t is the present age of the Universe in Planck time units, this rate determined by the calculated size of the Universe and an assumed present day rate of apparent expansion of the Universe of c, the speed of light) that the rate of loss of matter-energy due to contraction would be such that the loss in mass-energy can be accounted for in terms of undetected mass-energy. After all, presently physicists believe that a large portion of the original mass-energy of the Universe is still unaccounted for, and since the Big Shrink implies that matter has a greater size in the past, this might be where the elusive dark matter lay.

Also with this approach I will show it is possible to describe contracted (accelerated) time reference frames which have the opposite properties of dilated frames. This concept can lead to a theory of gravity which includes anti-gravity, and this anti-gravity may be what dark energy actually is.

On the following pages I present a radically altered view of our Universe based upon the contraction principle, and also attempt to show that by describing the concepts of Special Relativity theory in terms of a contracting nature for space it is possible to derive a solution for the problems presented by the quantum nature of motion directly from relativity. This attempt is not complete and may not be exactly correct in every respect, but I believe that it does show the potential of this approach. If this approach is valid it would constitute the basis for a unified field theory, since all physical phenomena are presently explained in terms of either relativity or quantum concepts.

I. Ex-Con Basics

I will now present certain basic contraction principles. The size of space within the Universe, measured in terms of the rate at which light photons move through that space, or Planck length per Planck time, can be seen to contract at a rate of -Ur/tp^2 per Planck time unit, where Ur is the radius of the Universe at tp=1, and Tp is the number of Planck time units that have past since the creation of the Universe, with Ur=0 when tp=0. The positions of matter within the Universe remain static relative to the perimeter of the Universe (furthest observable point) unless accelerated, while photons contract toward the perimeter of the Universe in their direction of propagation at a rate of c. Actually, all entities in the Universe and space actually go through a cycle of alternating expansion and contraction, with the expansion rate slightly less than the contraction rate, resulting in a net contraction. This is addressed later.

With the shrinking rate being inversely proportional to time, the rate of growth in the relative size of the Universe decreases with time. This is obvious since if all measures of things within the Universe are shrinking proportionally at the rate described above, including the velocity of light, the rate of the apparent expansion of the Universe should also shrink. This reduced rate of apparent expansion is clearly seen if one considers that even with the conventional expanding view the same is true comparing the rate of expansion to the size of the Universe at any given time shows that if that rate is constant, it diminishes in size with time relative to the size of the Universe since the Universe gets larger with time.

To keep contraction in proper proportion, contraction must be described in terms of per unit size. This would mean that if a distance equal to the radius of the Universe contracts such that the Universe appears to increase in size at a rate of the velocity of light, c, showing that the contraction rate for that distance is c, then any smaller distance will have a proportionally smaller rate of contraction. Thus, in this case, an object halfway across the Universe would then appear to recede from us at c/2. This then is consistent with the conventional expanding space-time view, and explains why gravity easily overcomes shrinking effects at small distances.

As explained earlier, the wavelengths of radiation released into space in the past will undergo the same general contraction experienced by everything else in the Universe, but they will also be affected by the apparent relative expansion of space between the nodes of the waves due to the contraction with time of our standards of measure. These particular expansions and contractions cancel each other out, so an apparent expansion for the wavelength relative to the contracting standard of measure, the speed of light remains apparent in the wave. The result is a perceived red shift for those wavelengths, a red shift which is proportional to the distance and time that the radiation has traveled through space.

In applying the concept of contraction to Albert Einstein's Special Relativity Theory it becomes clear that it is useful to describe time reference frames in terms of two distinct sized parameters. One is what I call overall size and the other is what I call internal size. This is necessary because contraction rates for space must be described in terms of per unit of space and also diminish with time. Overall size describes the total unity size of a reference frame, or the total size of space relative to which internal units of space of that frame, measured in terms of the velocity of light, contract. Internal size represents the size of space as measured in terms of the velocity of light relative to that overall size. For example, hypothetically, if we begin with a Universe with a radius of 1x c and time causes c to contract so that after 10 seconds c becomes equal to 1/10th the radius of the Universe, the internal size of space equals 1/10th the overall size.

When comparing different time reference frames we find it is necessary to compare not just internal contraction rates of a frame but also overall unity sizes which can be different for different time reference frames. With this approach a dilated time frame actually represents an enlarged time reference frame in terms of internal size relative to a non-dilated normal frame, with these enlarged frames having faster rates of contraction. However, this larger frame is always perceived in contracted form within the context of a normal non-dilated frame, this producing the perceptions that a motionless observer has of that dilated frame, including length contraction. This is explained in greater detail in a later section.

A consequence of the contraction approach to relativity concepts is that it is possible to describe what is the opposite of dilated time reference frames, that is, contracted (accelerated time rate) time reference frames. Contracted time reference frames are possible with the contraction approach because with the contracting nature of things a new reference point exists in the size of the past, present and future reality of an entity. Since the past and the future is differentiated from each other and from the present by size and rates of contraction, motion can no longer be considered as simply relative to other entities but must also be considered in terms of positions and size relative to the past of an entity.

In regards to accelerated time rate reference frames, just as before when I described dilated frames in terms of contraction there seems to be a contradiction between the concept of contracting frames, which implies that future frames are relatively smaller, and the expansion caused by time acceleration. The reasoning that resolves this apparent paradox is the same as that which explains the contracted nature of dilated frames. Since future frames are smaller, their contraction rates relative to a normal present frame are less, and this can cause a relative expansion, not in the size of the accelerated frame as measured in terms of its velocity of light but in terms of it's dispersion into the space of the present frames. This concept can be paralleled to our presently accepted understanding of the rapid expansion of space at the beginning of the Universe, known as inflation, where the velocity of light does not increase with the expansion, even though the Universe is expanding faster than the speed of light, but instead, pockets of space inflate, causing the rapid expansion.

Accelerated time rate reference frames have the opposite characteristics to those of dilated frames. Time is accelerated, length is expanded and mass is diminished. In terms of the contraction approach it also means that the overall size of the space of the frame is expanded and the internal size of space, as measured by the velocity of light is contracted. This will be explained in greater detail later. I will then use the concept of accelerated time reference frames to explain the nature of dark energy and also to provide a non-probabilistic explanation of quantum phenomena.

II. Quantum Space-time and the Evolution of the Universe