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I. Ex-Con Basics
II. Uvolution - Evolution of the Universe
III. Energy and Matter Structures
IV. Gravity
V. Quantum Relativity
VI. Time Accelerated Quantum Mechanics


With Albert Einstein's relativity theories (Special Relativity, 1905, and General Relativity, 1915) and with quantum theory physicists have been able to reduce all physical forces in the Universe to four basic types electromagnetic, gravitational, weak nuclear, and strong nuclear. While three of the forces, electromagnetic, weak nuclear, and strong nuclear have been significantly related to each other through quantum theory, it has not yet been possible to relate all four of these forces to each other in a logical, straight-forward way. I believe that I have come up with an approach to describing physical laws in such a way that a straight forward unification is possible. This approach is based upon an alternative explanation to the presently well accepted explanation of the creation and expansion of the Universe, the "Big Bang" theory. Instead of assuming that the Universe is simply the result of a primordial big bang, assume instead that at one time the Universe existed in a condition of unity, similar to the unity that is assumed to have existed before the big bang, and that time and space as we know it began when the size of space, as measured in terms of the velocity of light, began to contract relative to itself and relative to the overall size of the Universe.

With this view there would still be an actual expansion of the overall size of the Universe (this creating space) accompanying the contraction of the size of space within the Universe, but this would eventually cease and the apparent expansion of the Universe that we observe today would be fully the result of a contraction in the size of space within the Universe.

This point of view means that time and space within the Universe began as the result of a "Big Shrink". Also with this view the size of all entities comprised of energy and matter would also contract with time, at the same rate as does the speed of light and the space between entities, and thus a constant relative size for all entities within the Universe is maintained. Also with this view the apparent velocity between galaxies separated by large distances in the Universe is actually the result of the basic units space, segments of space with a size on the order of Planck's length, that lay between those galaxies actually contracting in size while the positions of those galaxies remain constant. This then clearly explains why even though distant galaxies appear to be receding from us at great velocities they are not in actual dilated frames. They are not dilated because their apparent motion is not actual motion, it is caused by the contraction of the size of the fundamental units of space between them and us. This is how genuine motionless non- dilated frames can exist at all positions within the Universe, with apparent motion perceived between those positions.

In regards to the red shifting of the light from distant receding galaxies, the wavelengths of radiation released into space in the past from those galaxies will be longer at the time they are released because of the greater distance scales of the past, but those wavelengths also undergo the same general contraction experienced by everything else in the Universe. However, they also undergo an apparent expansion due to the contraction of the basic units of space that lay between successive nodes of those wavelengths, this producing a red shift in the wavelength. The greater the waves' time in free space, the greater the shift.

An objection that some may have to this concept is that this then means that energy and mass are being lost in the process. However, it is possible that the rate of contraction is only great at the initial stages of the Universe's creation, the first few nanoseconds or so, when, according to present day thought the Universe expanded at an extreme rate and the primordial energy of the initial singularity differentiated into the forms of energy that we perceive now. Thus, in terms of the contraction approach, at this stage there would not be a loss of energy, but instead simply a differentiation, or breaking down, of the primordial energy into present forms of energy. After this stage the rate of contraction can be so small (on the order of -1/t^2 per Planck time unit, where t is the present age of the Universe in Planck time units, this rate determined by the calculated size of the Universe and an assumed present day rate of apparent expansion of the Universe of c, the speed of light) that the rate of loss of matter-energy due to contraction would be such that the loss in mass-energy can be accounted for in terms of undetected mass-energy. After all, presently physicists believe that a large portion of the original mass-energy of the Universe is still unaccounted for, and since the Big Shrink implies that matter has a greater size in the past, this might be where the elusive dark matter lay.

Also with this approach I will show it is possible to describe contracted (accelerated) time reference frames which have the opposite properties of dilated frames. This concept can lead to a theory of gravity which includes anti-gravity, and this anti-gravity may be what dark energy actually is.

On the following pages I present a radically altered view of our Universe based upon the contraction principle, and also attempt to show that by describing the concepts of Special Relativity theory in terms of a contracting nature for space it is possible to derive a solution for the problems presented by the quantum nature of motion directly from relativity. This attempt is not complete and may not be exactly correct in every respect, but I believe that it does show the potential of this approach. If this approach is valid it would constitute the basis for a unified field theory, since all physical phenomena are presently explained in terms of either relativity or quantum concepts.

I. Ex-Con Basics

I will now present certain basic contraction principles. The size of space within the Universe, measured in terms of the rate at which light photons move through that space, or Planck length per Planck time, can be seen to contract at a rate of -Ur/tp^2 per Planck time unit, where Ur is the radius of the Universe at tp=1, and Tp is the number of Planck time units that have past since the creation of the Universe, with Ur=0 when tp=0. The positions of matter within the Universe remain static relative to the perimeter of the Universe (furthest observable point) unless accelerated, while photons contract toward the perimeter of the Universe in their direction of propagation at a rate of c. Actually, all entities in the Universe and space actually go through a cycle of alternating expansion and contraction, with the expansion rate slightly less than the contraction rate, resulting in a net contraction. This is addressed later.

With the shrinking rate being inversely proportional to time, the rate of growth in the relative size of the Universe decreases with time. This is obvious since if all measures of things within the Universe are shrinking proportionally at the rate described above, including the velocity of light, the rate of the apparent expansion of the Universe should also shrink. This reduced rate of apparent expansion is clearly seen if one considers that even with the conventional expanding view the same is true comparing the rate of expansion to the size of the Universe at any given time shows that if that rate is constant, it diminishes in size with time relative to the size of the Universe since the Universe gets larger with time.

To keep contraction in proper proportion, contraction must be described in terms of per unit size. This would mean that if a distance equal to the radius of the Universe contracts such that the Universe appears to increase in size at a rate of the velocity of light, c, showing that the contraction rate for that distance is c, then any smaller distance will have a proportionally smaller rate of contraction. Thus, in this case, an object halfway across the Universe would then appear to recede from us at c/2. This then is consistent with the conventional expanding space-time view, and explains why gravity easily overcomes shrinking effects at small distances.

As explained earlier, the wavelengths of radiation released into space in the past will undergo the same general contraction experienced by everything else in the Universe, but they will also be affected by the apparent relative expansion of space between the nodes of the waves due to the contraction with time of our standards of measure. These particular expansions and contractions cancel each other out, so an apparent expansion for the wavelength relative to the contracting standard of measure, the speed of light remains apparent in the wave. The result is a perceived red shift for those wavelengths, a red shift which is proportional to the distance and time that the radiation has traveled through space.

In applying the concept of contraction to Albert Einstein's Special Relativity Theory it becomes clear that it is useful to describe time reference frames in terms of two distinct sized parameters. One is what I call overall size and the other is what I call internal size. This is necessary because contraction rates for space must be described in terms of per unit of space and also diminish with time. Overall size describes the total unity size of a reference frame, or the total size of space relative to which internal units of space of that frame, measured in terms of the velocity of light, contract. Internal size represents the size of space as measured in terms of the velocity of light relative to that overall size. For example, hypothetically, if we begin with a Universe with a radius of 1x c and time causes c to contract so that after 10 seconds c becomes equal to 1/10th the radius of the Universe, the internal size of space equals 1/10th the overall size.

When comparing different time reference frames we find it is necessary to compare not just internal contraction rates of a frame but also overall unity sizes which can be different for different time reference frames. With this approach a dilated time frame actually represents an enlarged time reference frame in terms of internal size relative to a non-dilated normal frame, with these enlarged frames having faster rates of contraction. However, this larger frame is always perceived in contracted form within the context of a normal non-dilated frame, this producing the perceptions that a motionless observer has of that dilated frame, including length contraction. This is explained in greater detail in a later section.

A consequence of the contraction approach to relativity concepts is that it is possible to describe what is the opposite of dilated time reference frames, that is, contracted (accelerated time rate) time reference frames. Contracted time reference frames are possible with the contraction approach because with the contracting nature of things a new reference point exists in the size of the past, present and future reality of an entity. Since the past and the future is differentiated from each other and from the present by size and rates of contraction, motion can no longer be considered as simply relative to other entities but must also be considered in terms of positions and size relative to the past of an entity.

In regards to accelerated time rate reference frames, just as before when I described dilated frames in terms of contraction there seems to be a contradiction between the concept of contracting frames, which implies that future frames are relatively smaller, and the expansion caused by time acceleration. The reasoning that resolves this apparent paradox is the same as that which explains the contracted nature of dilated frames. Since future frames are smaller, their contraction rates relative to a normal present frame are less, and this can cause a relative expansion, not in the size of the accelerated frame as measured in terms of its velocity of light but in terms of it's dispersion into the space of the present frames. This concept can be paralleled to our presently accepted understanding of the rapid expansion of space at the beginning of the Universe, known as inflation, where the velocity of light does not increase with the expansion, even though the Universe is expanding faster than the speed of light, but instead, pockets of space inflate, causing the rapid expansion.

Accelerated time rate reference frames have the opposite characteristics to those of dilated frames. Time is accelerated, length is expanded and mass is diminished. In terms of the contraction approach it also means that the overall size of the space of the frame is expanded and the internal size of space, as measured by the velocity of light is contracted. This will be explained in greater detail later. I will then use the concept of accelerated time reference frames to explain the nature of dark energy and also to provide a non-probabilistic explanation of quantum phenomena.

II. Uvolution -The Evolution of the Universe

The following is an explanation of the initial development of the early Universe, including the phenomenon known as “inflation”, based upon the concept of the contraction of space and the velocity of light with the passage of time.

The mathematical description of ex-con concepts is based upon one fundamental relationship, the ratio between two lengths, the overall length of the radius of the Universe and Planck’s length. Overall length represents the radius of the observable Universe, real or theoretical, which remains constant or expands, while Planck’s length in this Universe always contracts with time relative to the overall size of the Universe and relative to itself. This contraction of Planck’s length is the fundamental action of the physical Universe. It creates the velocity between stationary matter and photons and also determines the rate that time passes for the Universe and the amount of time that has passed since the beginning of the Universe.

In its most simple form contraction can be considered to have two fundamental directions, with one direction defining photon position and motion in space time and the other defining the motionless center of a particular non-dilated reference frame. For a motionless observer composed of matter, it can be said that it and space-time contracts in size toward its own center (usually it's own gravitational center), this being one of those fundamental directions of contraction. The other fundamental direction applies to photons. The path of free photons moving away from that same observer can be said to be caused by a contraction of the space between the observer and the periphery of the observable Universe in the direction of motion of the photon. The rate of contraction per unit of space and the amount of space determine the rate of velocity between stationary mass and propagated photons, and this is always c, though this “c”, as opposed to the conventionally understanding of (c), contracts in size with time. *(1)

With the fundamental relationship of the ratio between overall length of the radius of the Universe relative to Planck’s length and the two fundamental directions of contraction it is possible to develop a basic mathematical description of the creation and expansion of the Universe using the contraction approach. We begin with nothing, meaning no space of any kind, at T’’=0, where T’’ equals the number of Planck time units (ptu) that have passed since the beginning of Creation, a Creation that begins as a pre-Universe and lasts from T’’ = 0 to T’’ = 2(ptu). Let’s say that this Creation begins as two sphere balls, one ball’s radius representing a maximum possible size for a length of space within what will be the observable Universe while the other representing the minimum size, Planck’s length (PL), each of these balls with the same center point, and with radii that initially expand at the same rate from 0 to PL/(Tf) in 1/(Tf) ptu, where Tf equals approximately 1.6 x10^60 ptu, the number of ptu that have passed since beginning of the Universe as measured today. Since here they are equal in size there can be no space in a Universe or pre-Universe under these conditions.

From this point the radii of the balls representing maximum and minimum size expand at different rates so that after [1- (1/1x10^60)] ptu, at T’’=1 ptu, maximum radius size reaches approximately the 1.6x10^10m, while the minimum radius size expands to today’s Planck length. The differences between the sizes of the radii create a volume of the space between the surface of the ball representing maximum size and the outside surface of the ball representing minimum size. This is not the space of this Universe but instead a semi-void pre-Universe. The radius of the sphere ball representing the maximum radius of the pre-Universe, this at T’=0, with T’= T’’-1, collapses from its maximum size of approximately 1.6 x10^10m to an overall size of approximately 1.6x10^-5m. Over the same period the radius of ball representing the minimum size, this radius equal to Planck’s length, expands from approximately 1.61x10^-35m to 1.6 x10^-5m, this producing a collision between the expanding Planck length and the contracting overall size of the Universe at T=0, where T=T’’-2, and also T=T’-1, this the age of the Universe in Planck time units.

So we now have:

c=C'/T+1, where c equals the speed of light after (T) Planck time units have passed since the beginning of time in this Universe, C' equals the speed of light at T =0, equal to approximately 1.6x10^-5m/(ptu), and T equals the number of Planck time units that have passed since the beginning of the Universe. T=0 is also the point in time when the speed of light begins to contract. As time passes from the point Planck’s length contracts at a rate of -C/T’^2 per (ptu)^2.

This collision creates the space of our Universe as a single contracting non-dilated normal time reference frame with corresponding dilated relative frames, with positions furthest from the center possessing the greatest density of the Primordial substance. We can say at this point the Universe seems like a sphere ball with the most dense volumes of space near the surface of the ball. For this size and this stage of the development of the Universe, before inflation, relative motion based upon Hubble's law of expansion and the Lorentz-Einstein transformations can be used to describe a density distribution for this Primordial substance, with the furthest points in the Universe appearing to move the fastest from the initial center point, this producing a greater relative time dilation, thus amplified measured relative density for the Primordial substance that is located near the periphery of the Universe, as measured from the single normal time frame centered at the center of the ball. Each point in space then defines a particular time dilation. *(2)

For this newly created Universe the overall actual size of the radius of the sphere ball representing the Universe begins as a constant [C'(1ptu)], or 1.6x10^-5m. However, overall size can expand through an overall time contraction (time acceleration, which is now the term I’ll use), (A), where (A) is the time acceleration factor. Thus, the relative overall size of the Universe, relative to the it’s initial size of (C'x1ptu), will equal (A)(change in time)(C'(1ptu) after a time acceleration of (A), where change in time equals approximately T^2, and rate equals C' per ptu..

As the sphere ball actually expands, or just appears to expand because of the contraction of Planck’s constant, new contraction points are created at an appropriate rate to maintain proper Primordial substance density.

As stated earlier, at the initial point in time in this Universe the density of the Primordial substance in the Universe is determined by Hubble's law and the Lorentz transformations, so that the further it is from the center of the single initial non-dilated frame that exists in the Universe at this time the greater the velocity relative to that center, and thus the greater the measured density of the Primordial substance there relative to that at the zero velocity center, by a factor of u, where u is the time dilation factor produced by the velocity. I hypothesis that this amplification caused by relative velocity at the periphery of the Universe is the source of apparent dark matter. When an overall time acceleration occurs for the Universe under these conditions, caused by what is today known as dark energy, this distribution flattens to a relatively uniform measured distribution of the mass-energy into which the Primordial substance evolves.

From observation we know that after approximately 1.5x10^-36 sec (this equivalent to about Tf^1/8 ptu, where Tf = approximately 1 x10^60 ptu, the number of ptu that have passed since beginning of the Universe as measured today) had passed since the beginning of Universal inflation. For purposes of this model we can first say that inflation continues until approximately 5x10^-29 sec, (this equivalent to about Tf^1/4 ptu) having passed since the beginning of the Universe. According to ex-con physics this inflation is actually caused by a time acceleration during this period.

The combination of contraction and expansion associated with time acceleration can be described in terms of basic exponential and logarithmic functions. Expansions and contractions can be described as summations of natural sub expansions and contractions described by Tf^1/2, Tf^1/4, Tf^1/8, Tf^1/16, etc…, where Tf = approximately 1 x10^60 ptu, approximately the apparent age of the Universe today in terms of Planck time units. These can be used to describe eigen lengths and eigen times in the evolution of the Universe.

In terms of ex-con physics we can say that after the initial Tf^1/8 ptu of the Universe, equal to approximately 1.5x10^-36 sec, the rate of time passage is accelerated by a factor of (Tf^1/8) over a period of (Tf^1/8) ptu, this giving a total acceleration factor of (Tf^1/4) during this period of inflation. According to the normal non-accelerated time frame a total of (Tf^¼) ptu, or approximately 5x10^-29 sec, will have passed since the birth of the Universe, while the perceived amount of time that would have passed for the observer in the accelerated frame will be equal to about (Tf^1/8)(Tf^1/8) (Tf^1/4)ptu, this equal to (Tf^1/2)ptu, or about (5x10^-14) sec.

Since overall size is expanded by time acceleration the actual overall size of the Universe after this time acceleration will be equal to (Tf^¼)(1.6x10^-5)m, or about 1.6x10^10 m, equal to the maximum size of the pre-Universe mentioned earlier. From what was explained previously it is also clear that the actual size of Planck’s length from both the normal time perspective and the accelerated time perspective will be equal to approximately 1.6x10^-20 m at this point in time, since from both perspectives Planck’s length will have contracted by the same amount, by a factor of 1/(1x10^15), relative to its original actual size of 1.6x10^-5m. However, Planck length is always perceived to be equal to (1.61x 10^-35 )m as measured from the perspective of an observer in any time reference frame, since while it’s absolute size contracts, it’s relative size, relative to a Universe that appears to expand in every direction at the speed of light, is always perceived to be a constant 1.61x 10^-35m. Observers don’t recognize the contraction of Planck’s length because they are also contracting. Consequently the perceived overall size of the observable Universe at this time for the accelerated observer will be equal to his perceived age of the Universe, about (1x10^30) ptu, times (Planck length 1.6x 10^-35m), this total equal to about 1.6x10^-5m. From the perspective of an observer in the normal time frame, overall size of the observable Universe at approximately 5 x10^-29 sec should be, under non-accelerated conditions, equal to (Tf^1/4 x Planck length), or about 1.6x10^-20 m. However, if both perceive the same sized Universe, the expanded one, the observer in the accelerated frame would see this expanded size as expected, since the appropriate number of Planck time units will have passed in order to have produced such a size, while from the perspective of an observer in the normal time frame the Universe would seem to be much too large considering the amount of time that had passed at the expected rate of expansion of (c). For that observer this then would necessitate an alternative explanation such as a radical “inflation” of space in order to explain this anomaly. I propose that today we are in this situation, not recognizing that the rate at which time passes in the Universe can accelerate and slow, so that getting an actual age based upon a constant rate for the passage of time and a proper understanding of spatial expansion requires a proper understanding of the varying rates for the passage of time that can occur. This is one of the essential consequences of the time acceleration concept made possible by Ex-Con physics.

The observable Universe reaches the end of the rapidly inflating period at an actual radius of approximately 1.6 x10^10m but an apparent radius of 1.6x10^-5m (because of the actual size of Planck’s length at this time is on the order of 1.6 x 10^-20 m) as described previously. The realms that have developed during this rapidly inflating time acceleration period are dominated by quantum principles and are explained in greater detail in the next section. From this point forward the Universe now has the size to accommodate the macro “realm of action”, where gravity and dark matter (amplified gravity) assert their dominance.

The rapidly expanding period for the overall size of the Universe comes to a relatively quick slowing because of the structure of space-time. It is quantized, layered and linked. As explained previously, expansion is generated at a particular time and size for Planck length because the expansion had begun when “layers” of quanta sized space time are released and unravel as overall size extends beyond the range of the binding force (dark matter) that kept it layered, this at approximately (Tf^1/8) ptu, at a size on the order of 5 x10^-28m. It also diminishes, then stops, at particular times and sizes. At the end of this period the linking nature of space-time and gravity grinds expansion to a halt, this occurring over a particular period of time. Also, there are other layers to quantized space that are held in place, or stacked by other levels of binding forces (quantized levels) that have limited range, and once these ranges are exceeded localized areas within the Universe will begin to appear to expand.

Essential to understanding the effects of expansions and contractions on space is remembering that according to Ex- Con physics, accelerated contraction rates of space can make it appear that the Universe, or a section of space within the Universe, is expanding at an accelerated rate when it is actually not. It’s an appearance of expansion due to the increased rate of the spatial production of space that was caused by internal contraction, in the context of an expanded Universe. With the accelerated frame there is an increased rate of internal contraction relative to what would be the normal rate for that point in time. This eventually ceases when time acceleration ceases, but this takes time to affect all areas of space-time. The frame’s increased contraction rate gradually diminishes and ceases, this, again, because of the linked nature of space.

Recall that earlier I had explained inflation as an expansion of space that occurs when the range of a binding force is exceeded so that sections of space of length equal to the Planck length times (Tf^1/8) expands, one after another, until the final unit of that length expands, this occurring when the range of the binding force is reduced to that length, and here the expansion stops, remembering that the range of the binding force shrinks as the Planck length shrinks with time. Basically a stretch of layered space reaches its end. This is like a stretch of folded up string being unraveled until it is straight. Once it is completely unfolded a force is exerted on the straight string. This is what happens to space when it is un-layered. The force exerted then reduces the rate of contraction of space. Consequently after the end of the inflationary period, though overall size is not expanding, internal size is still contracting and in the accelerated frame at an accelerated, though not accelerating rate, than what would be normal for frames at that point in time. This is because as I have explained, when there is a time acceleration the rate of contraction for the Planck length increases relative to what would be normal at that future point in time in a non-accelerated, normal frame, but equal to that of the normal, non-accelerated frame at the non-accelerated point in time. However, when the time acceleration stops, unless it is reduced by some force, the rate of apparent expansion of space, this due to the contraction of space, while no longer accelerating, continues to produce an amplified increase in apparent space, this because of the increased number of units of space that now exist. This necessitates that there be some kind of force that counters the increased rate of contraction that exists so that apparent increases in space are reduced to c. Ultimately this countering force is comprised of both the gravity that is redistributed by the un-layering of space during the time acceleration faze and also an anti-contraction “rebound” force produced by the Universe when it reaches its intrinsic maximum overall size, this force today known as dark matter. Dark matter slows the rate of the apparent expansion of space by slowing down the rate of contraction of space.

The difference between the first period of Primordial substance dominance, this period extending from the initial creation of the Universe until the passing of approximately 1.5 x10^-36 sec, is that then there was only one normal, non-dilated time reference frame with one central point, toward which all entities considered to be in a normal non-dilated frame would contract. After the period of time acceleration, or inflation, there are multiple normal time reference frames distributed throughout the Universe, each defining a point toward which non-dilated entities contract. Gravity influences the positions of these points of contraction, essentially squeezing them together, sometimes to the point of creating black holes. There can still be certain degrees of “localized“ time acceleration after the Universe enters into it’s “macro” phase, but now their effect will be dispersed through a much greater volume of space because of the newly created space, and their expanding effect will only apply to a localized area, with the expansion always corresponding to a contraction of the space outside the expanded area, this contraction caused by gravity. Gravity produces the opposite effect on the size of overall space (and subdivided overall space) than does dark energy, contracting it instead of expanding it. The combination of the expansions caused by the time acceleration generated by dark energy and the contractions caused by the time dilation produced by gravity and dark matter give us the Universe we see today.

Gravitational centers begin as relatively evenly dispersed throughout the Universe. As they increase in strength and cluster, the space between them can begin to expand because a localized time acceleration between the galaxies occurs. This happens because at a certain point the “dark matter”, or “amplified gravity” created by the formation of black holes no longer has the range to reach and interact with other black hole systems, allowing accelerated local expansion to begin. This is what occurs about 10 billion years into the Universe, and this occurs because the average distance between the large gravity producing galaxies come to exceed the range of the amplified gravity produced by a secondary quantum layer of space-time.

Thus we have:

Range of the binding force of dark matter equals approximately Tf^1/8(PL), which equals approximately 5x10^-28m. At Tf^1/8 ptu this also equals the radius of the Universe. Just like Planck’s length, while the range of the bonding force contracts in the absolute sense it remains constant in size relative to other measured entities in the Universe.

Under normal circumstances and in normal time, after Tf^¼ ptu, which equals (Tf^1/8)(Tf^1/8) ptu, or approximately 5x10^-29 sec, while the size of the Universe’s radius in the absolute sense is still equal to about 1.6 x10^-5 m, in the relative sense, as measured in terms of Planck’s length by a person at the same point in time and who is contracting at the same rate as Planck’s length, Planck's length will be measured as approximately 1.61 x10^-35m, and the apparent radius of the Universe will be measured as about 1/Tf^1/4 times this, or (1,61x10^-20 m).

Alternatively, when a time acceleration of factor Tf^1/8 per Tf^1/8 (ptu), equal to C' per (ptu), is applied to the overall size of the Universe at Tf^1/8 ptu for a period of Tf^1/8 normal time ptu, the overall actual size of the Universe expands to a size of approximately Tf^1/4(1.61x10^-5)m, which equals approximately (1.61 x 10^10 m). Overall expansion then stops. Actual overall size is now (Tf^1/4)(1.6x10^-5)m, or approximately 1.6x10^10m, but apparent size is measured as about [(1.6x10^10m)/(1.6x10^-20m)]/[1.61x10^-35m], which equals approximately 1.61x10^-5m, since at this point in time the actual size of Planck’s length is on the order of 1/(1x10^30) as large as the actual size of the Universe at this time. The apparent size of Planck's length at this time is measured as approximately (1,6x10^-20 m), which is about (1x10^15) larger than today’s Planck length. This implies that from then until now the rate of contraction for c is reduced by a factor of the square root per change in T.

At this point, at approximately (1x10^15) ptu, or about 5 x 10^-29 sec, overall size has stopped expanding but Planck’s length is still contracting at such a rate that it will appear that the space of the Universe expands at a rate of Tf^1/4(c). This is because the apparent rate of spatial creation is determined by the rate of contraction of Planck’s length and the radius of the Universe. When the size of the radius of the Universe is on the order of Tf^1/4 larger than normal, this equivalent to 1 x10^15 larger than normal, the rate of spatial creation will also increase by that factor, to Tf^1/4(c).From here forward, because of the expanded overall size, the rate of apparent growth in the size of the Universe is always Tf^1/4, or about 1x10^15 times normal. However, if we recognize that there is also a diminishing in the rate of contraction of Planck's length as time passes, there would then be an expansion in its size relative what it would be in normal time in a normal sized Universe. This diminishing in the rate of contraction reflects the quantum nature of space-time mentioned earlier, where the fully unfolded string or chain asserts a pulling effect on the minimum size possible, the "floor" of the Universe, Plank's length. The reduction is by a factor of Tf^1/8, which then means that the Universe will always look to be larger than expected by a factor of Tf^1/8, as opposed to the Tf^1/4 that would occur without the diminishing in the rate of contraction of c. So, when overall expansion stops at Tf^1/4 ptu, after the next Tf^1/4(Tf^14)ptu the Universe will appear to be Tf^1/8 larger that "normal". So at about Tf^30(5.x10^-44) ptu, or about 5x10^-14 sec, the Universe will appear to be about 5x10^2 m in radius at about 5x10 sec the Universe will appear to be about 5x10^m and at 1.5 x10^9 sec, about 200 years, the Universe will appear to be about 1x10^6 light years in radius.

According to observation, after inflation the apparent expanding rate of the Universe diminishes at such a rate that approximately 1 sec after the birth of the Universe it will have an apparent measured size of approximately 1 light year, while after 10 years this size will appear to be about 300,000 light years. These results match up pretty well with the purely theoretically derived results I've obtained with the contraction approach.

As time goes by the excess apparent expansion of the Universe caused by the remnant of the time acceleration that produced the inflationary period diminishes until it eventually becomes zero. This occurs approximately Tf ptu after the beginning of the Universe, or in other words, today. The apparent rates of expansion though, are never fully realized because of the presence of gravity, including the amplified gravity of dark matter. However, about 4 billion years ago apparent spatial expansion began to increase, this indicating a form of "localized" time acceleration, this due to the dispersion of gravity and increased dispersion of large gravitational sources, plus the range limitations of dark gravity. This increasing rate of spatial expansion is observed today.

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1) As stated, for purposes of describing a photon’s propagation it can be said that as a photon moves toward the periphery of the Universe the space required to produce a contraction powered propagation of velocity c shrinks. We could also say that hypothetically the radius of the Universe is actually, 2tc, not tc, in that direction, thus maintaining a sufficient distance between a photon and the periphery of the Universe in the direction of propagation, and this then enabling contraction to produce an appropriate velocity for photons. However, the actual expanded size of the Universe in the direction of propagation is not necessary, since a proper velocity of c produced by contraction can also be obtained by increasing rates of contraction in the direction of motion as the distance between the photon and the periphery of the Universe shrinks.

2) The rate of contraction per unit of space and the amount of space between any two matter objects in space also creates an apparent motion between the two. Under normal circumstances it is only an apparent motion because it is caused by the contraction of Planck’s length (producing an apparent expansion of the overall size of the Universes), and not by a change in inertia. Before inflation, at t<1.5x10^-36 sec, conditions were different. Under these conditions this apparent motion should be considered to be an actual motion relative to the single non-dilated time reference frame centered at the center of the Universe. This motion is caused by a relative time dilation for matter at that relative position in the Universe. As described in my paper, “Alternative Relativity”, a position in space corresponds with a velocity relative to the non- dilated “center” of the Universe as determined by that particular non-dilated frame. This relative motion may or may not cause a time dilation for matter at that position in space. If there is a time dilation for a matter object at that relative position it is because it possesses a velocity that counters the natural velocity it has toward the center of the frame. If it does not possess a time dilation it is because only apparent velocity exists between it and the center. As the size of the distance separating two matter objects in space approaches the radius of the Universe the apparent motion between the two approaches c. In order for a matter object in this situation to be considered motionless relative to the other matter object which is considered motionless, it must have a change in inertia and move toward the other object with a countering velocity that approaches c. When this occurs the apparent velocity caused by the contracting in the size of space shrinks as the separating distance shrinks. Consequently, by the time that matter object approaches the matter object considered to be stationary it will have velocity, caused by its relative inertia, that approaches c relative to the stationary object.

3) The Universe begins as a single three dimensional point ball of radius app1.6x10^-5m, this being equal to the Planck length at that time. This spherical ball can also represent the base “volume” of space in which a photon exists at the beginning point in time. The radius of this base volume can be considered to be contracting, as does Planck’s length, toward a center point within itself. This center point toward which it contracts follows a path that appears to move away from the center of the sphere representing the motionless point, or center, of the Universe.

For the photon radius of the circular path degenerates according to the equation r= 2pi(R)/T. In the space of the Universe this point ball’s contracting manifests itself as a point in motion, defining a line, a line that appears to increase in length at a rate of c(pi), though this apparent growth in the line is the result of the contraction of (c)1, or the Planck length, our standard of measure. This moving ball point (that writes) rotates its direction of motion at a rate of 1 rotation per Ptu. This rotation is actually the summation of three rotations, or one rotation in three directions, these directions defining the three dimensions. The radius contracts at a rate -C/t^2.

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