# EX-CON PHYSICS

RICHARD QUIST

copyright @ 2020

I. Ex-Con Basics

II. Uvolution - Evolution of the Universe

III. Energy and Matter Structures

IV. Gravity

V. Quantum Relativity

VI. Time Accelerated Quantum Mechanics

introduction

With Albert Einstein's relativity theories (Special Relativity, 1905, and General Relativity, 1915) and with quantum theory physicists have been able to reduce all physical forces in the Universe to four basic types electromagnetic, gravitational, weak nuclear, and strong nuclear. While three of the forces, electromagnetic, weak nuclear, and strong nuclear have been significantly related to each other through quantum theory, it has not yet been possible to relate all four of these forces to each other in a logical, straight-forward way. I believe that I have come up with an approach to describing physical laws in such a way that a straight forward unification is possible. This approach is based upon an alternative explanation to the presently well accepted explanation of the creation and expansion of the Universe, the "Big Bang" theory. Instead of assuming that the Universe is simply the result of a primordial big bang, assume instead that at one time the Universe existed in a condition of unity, similar to the unity that is assumed to have existed before the big bang, and that time and space as we know it began when the size of space, as measured in terms of the velocity of light, began to contract relative to itself and relative to the overall size of the Universe.

With this view there would still be an actual expansion of the overall size of the Universe (this creating space) accompanying the contraction of the size of space within the Universe, but this would eventually cease and the apparent expansion of the Universe that we observe today would be fully the result of a contraction in the size of space within the Universe.

This point of view means that time and space within the Universe began as the result of a "Big Shrink". Also with this view the size of all entities comprised of energy and matter would also contract with time, at the same rate as does the speed of light and the space between entities, and thus a constant relative size for all entities within the Universe is maintained. Also with this view the apparent velocity between galaxies separated by large distances in the Universe is actually the result of the basic units space, segments of space with a size on the order of Planck's length, that lay between those galaxies actually contracting in size while the positions of those galaxies remain constant. This then clearly explains why even though distant galaxies appear to be receding from us at great velocities they are not in actual dilated frames. They are not dilated because their apparent motion is not actual motion, it is caused by the contraction of the size of the fundamental units of space between them and us. This is how genuine motionless non- dilated frames can exist at all positions within the Universe, with apparent motion perceived between those positions.

In regards to the red shifting of the light from distant receding galaxies, the wavelengths of radiation released into space in the past from those galaxies will be longer at the time they are released because of the greater distance scales of the past, but those wavelengths also undergo the same general contraction experienced by everything else in the Universe. However, they also undergo an apparent expansion due to the contraction of the basic units of space that lay between successive nodes of those wavelengths, this producing a red shift in the wavelength. The greater the waves' time in free space, the greater the shift.

An objection that some may have to this concept is that this then means that energy and mass are being lost in the process. However, it is possible that the rate of contraction is only great at the initial stages of the Universe's creation, the first few nanoseconds or so, when, according to present day thought the Universe expanded at an extreme rate and the primordial energy of the initial singularity differentiated into the forms of energy that we perceive now. Thus, in terms of the contraction approach, at this stage there would not be a loss of energy, but instead simply a differentiation, or breaking down, of the primordial energy into present forms of energy. After this stage the rate of contraction can be so small (on the order of -1/t^2 per Planck time unit, where t is the present age of the Universe in Planck time units, this rate determined by the calculated size of the Universe and an assumed present day rate of apparent expansion of the Universe of c, the speed of light) that the rate of loss of matter-energy due to contraction would be such that the loss in mass-energy can be accounted for in terms of undetected mass-energy. After all, presently physicists believe that a large portion of the original mass-energy of the Universe is still unaccounted for, and since the Big Shrink implies that matter has a greater size in the past, this might be where the elusive dark matter lay.

Also with this approach I will show it is possible to describe contracted (accelerated) time reference frames which have the opposite properties of dilated frames. This concept can lead to a theory of gravity which includes anti-gravity, and this anti-gravity may be what dark energy actually is.

On the following pages I present a radically altered view of our Universe based upon the contraction principle, and also attempt to show that by describing the concepts of Special Relativity theory in terms of a contracting nature for space it is possible to derive a solution for the problems presented by the quantum nature of motion directly from relativity. This attempt is not complete and may not be exactly correct in every respect, but I believe that it does show the potential of this approach. If this approach is valid it would constitute the basis for a unified field theory, since all physical phenomena are presently explained in terms of either relativity or quantum concepts.

I. Ex-Con Basics

I will now present certain basic contraction principles. The size of space within the Universe, measured in terms of the rate at which light photons move through that space, or Planck length per Planck time, can be seen to contract at a rate of -Ur/tp^2 per Planck time unit, where Ur is the radius of the Universe at tp=1, and Tp is the number of Planck time units that have past since the creation of the Universe, with Ur=0 when tp=0. The positions of matter within the Universe remain static relative to the perimeter of the Universe (furthest observable point) unless accelerated, while photons contract toward the perimeter of the Universe in their direction of propagation at a rate of c. Actually, all entities in the Universe and space actually go through a cycle of alternating expansion and contraction, with the expansion rate slightly less than the contraction rate, resulting in a net contraction. This is addressed later.

With the shrinking rate being inversely proportional to time, the rate of growth in the relative size of the Universe decreases with time. This is obvious since if all measures of things within the Universe are shrinking proportionally at the rate described above, including the velocity of light, the rate of the apparent expansion of the Universe should also shrink. This reduced rate of apparent expansion is clearly seen if one considers that even with the conventional expanding view the same is true comparing the rate of expansion to the size of the Universe at any given time shows that if that rate is constant, it diminishes in size with time relative to the size of the Universe since the Universe gets larger with time.

To keep contraction in proper proportion, contraction must be described in terms of per unit size. This would mean that if a distance equal to the radius of the Universe contracts such that the Universe appears to increase in size at a rate of the velocity of light, c, showing that the contraction rate for that distance is c, then any smaller distance will have a proportionally smaller rate of contraction. Thus, in this case, an object halfway across the Universe would then appear to recede from us at c/2. This then is consistent with the conventional expanding space-time view, and explains why gravity easily overcomes shrinking effects at small distances.

As explained earlier, the wavelengths of radiation released into space in the past will undergo the same general contraction experienced by everything else in the Universe, but they will also be affected by the apparent relative expansion of space between the nodes of the waves due to the contraction with time of our standards of measure. These particular expansions and contractions cancel each other out, so an apparent expansion for the wavelength relative to the contracting standard of measure, the speed of light remains apparent in the wave. The result is a perceived red shift for those wavelengths, a red shift which is proportional to the distance and time that the radiation has traveled through space.

In applying the concept of contraction to Albert Einstein's Special Relativity Theory it becomes clear that it is useful to describe time reference frames in terms of two distinct sized parameters. One is what I call overall size and the other is what I call internal size. This is necessary because contraction rates for space must be described in terms of per unit of space and also diminish with time. Overall size describes the total unity size of a reference frame, or the total size of space relative to which internal units of space of that frame, measured in terms of the velocity of light, contract. Internal size represents the size of space as measured in terms of the velocity of light relative to that overall size. For example, hypothetically, if we begin with a Universe with a radius of 1x c and time causes c to contract so that after 10 seconds c becomes equal to 1/10th the radius of the Universe, the internal size of space equals 1/10th the overall size.

When comparing different time reference frames we find it is necessary to compare not just internal contraction rates of a frame but also overall unity sizes which can be different for different time reference frames. With this approach a dilated time frame actually represents an enlarged time reference frame in terms of internal size relative to a non-dilated normal frame, with these enlarged frames having faster rates of contraction. However, this larger frame is always perceived in contracted form within the context of a normal non-dilated frame, this producing the perceptions that a motionless observer has of that dilated frame, including length contraction. This is explained in greater detail in a later section.

A consequence of the contraction approach to relativity concepts is that it is possible to describe what is the opposite of dilated time reference frames, that is, contracted (accelerated time rate) time reference frames. Contracted time reference frames are possible with the contraction approach because with the contracting nature of things a new reference point exists in the size of the past, present and future reality of an entity. Since the past and the future is differentiated from each other and from the present by size and rates of contraction, motion can no longer be considered as simply relative to other entities but must also be considered in terms of positions and size relative to the past of an entity.

In regards to accelerated time rate reference frames, just as before when I described dilated frames in terms of contraction there seems to be a contradiction between the concept of contracting frames, which implies that future frames are relatively smaller, and the expansion caused by time acceleration. The reasoning that resolves this apparent paradox is the same as that which explains the contracted nature of dilated frames. Since future frames are smaller, their contraction rates relative to a normal present frame are less, and this can cause a relative expansion, not in the size of the accelerated frame as measured in terms of its velocity of light but in terms of it's dispersion into the space of the present frames. This concept can be paralleled to our presently accepted understanding of the rapid expansion of space at the beginning of the Universe, known as inflation, where the velocity of light does not increase with the expansion, even though the Universe is expanding faster than the speed of light, but instead, pockets of space inflate, causing the rapid expansion.

Accelerated time rate reference frames have the opposite characteristics to those of dilated frames. Time is accelerated, length is expanded and mass is diminished. In terms of the contraction approach it also means that the overall size of the space of the frame is expanded and the internal size of space, as measured by the velocity of light is contracted. This will be explained in greater detail later. I will then use the concept of accelerated time reference frames to explain the nature of dark energy and also to provide a non-probabilistic explanation of quantum phenomena.

II. Uvolution -The Evolution of the Universe

The following is an explanation of the initial development of the early Universe, including the phenomenon known as “inflation”, based upon the concept of the contraction of space and the velocity of light with the passage of time.

The mathematical description of ex-con concepts is based upon one fundamental relationship, the ratio between two lengths, the overall length of the radius of the Universe and Planck’s length. Overall length represents the radius of the observable Universe, real or theoretical, which remains constant or expands, while Planck’s length in this Universe always contracts with time relative to the overall size of the Universe and relative to itself. This contraction of Planck’s length is the fundamental action of the physical Universe. It creates the velocity between stationary matter and photons and also determines the rate that time passes for the Universe and the amount of time that has passed since the beginning of the Universe.

In its most simple form contraction can be considered to have two fundamental directions, with one direction defining photon position and motion in space time and the other defining the motionless center of a particular non-dilated reference frame. For a motionless observer composed of matter, it can be said that it and space-time contracts in size toward its own center (usually it's own gravitational center), this being one of those fundamental directions of contraction. The other fundamental direction applies to photons. The path of free photons moving away from that same observer can be said to be caused by a contraction of the space between the observer and the periphery of the observable Universe in the direction of motion of the photon. The rate of contraction per unit of space and the amount of space determine the rate of velocity between stationary mass and propagated photons, and this is always c, though this “c”, as opposed to the conventionally understanding of (c), contracts in size with time. *(1)

With the fundamental relationship of the ratio between overall length of the radius of the Universe relative to Planck’s length and the two fundamental directions of contraction it is possible to develop a basic mathematical description of the creation and expansion of the Universe using the contraction approach. We begin with nothing, meaning no space of any kind, at T’’=0, where T’’ equals the number of Planck time units (ptu) that have passed since the beginning of Creation, a Creation that begins as a pre-Universe and lasts from T’’ = 0 to T’’ = 2(ptu). Let’s say that this Creation begins as two sphere balls, one ball’s radius representing a maximum possible size for a length of space within what will be the observable Universe while the other representing the minimum size, Planck’s length (PL), each of these balls with the same center point, and with radii that initially expand at the same rate from 0 to PL/(Tf) in 1/(Tf) ptu, where Tf equals approximately 1.6 x10^60 ptu, the number of ptu that have passed since beginning of the Universe as measured today. Since here they are equal in size there can be no space in a Universe or pre-Universe under these conditions.

From this point the radii of the balls representing maximum and minimum size expand at different rates so that after [1- (1/1x10^60)] ptu, at T’’=1 ptu, maximum radius size reaches approximately the 1.6x10^10m, while the minimum radius size expands to today’s Planck length. The differences between the sizes of the radii create a volume of the space between the surface of the ball representing maximum size and the outside surface of the ball representing minimum size. This is not the space of this Universe but instead a semi-void pre-Universe. The radius of the sphere ball representing the maximum radius of the pre-Universe, this at T’=0, with T’= T’’-1, collapses from its maximum size of approximately 1.6 x10^10m to an overall size of approximately 1.6x10^-5m. Over the same period the radius of ball representing the minimum size, this radius equal to Planck’s length, expands from approximately 1.61x10^-35m to 1.6 x10^-5m, this producing a collision between the expanding Planck length and the contracting overall size of the Universe at T=0, where T=T’’-2, and also T=T’-1, this the age of the Universe in Planck time units.

So we now have:

c=C'/T+1, where c equals the speed of light after (T) Planck time units have passed since the beginning of time in this Universe, C' equals the speed of light at T =0, equal to approximately 1.6x10^-5m/(ptu), and T equals the number of Planck time units that have passed since the beginning of the Universe. T=0 is also the point in time when the speed of light begins to contract. As time passes from the point Planck’s length contracts at a rate of -C/T’^2 per (ptu)^2.

This collision creates the space of our Universe as a single contracting non-dilated normal time reference frame with corresponding dilated relative frames, with positions furthest from the center possessing the greatest density of the Primordial substance. We can say at this point the Universe seems like a sphere ball with the most dense volumes of space near the surface of the ball. For this size and this stage of the development of the Universe, before inflation, relative motion based upon Hubble's law of expansion and the Lorentz-Einstein transformations can be used to describe a density distribution for this Primordial substance, with the furthest points in the Universe appearing to move the fastest from the initial center point, this producing a greater relative time dilation, thus amplified measured relative density for the Primordial substance that is located near the periphery of the Universe, as measured from the single normal time frame centered at the center of the ball. Each point in space then defines a particular time dilation. *(2)

For this newly created Universe the overall actual size of the radius of the sphere ball representing the Universe begins as a constant [C'(1ptu)], or 1.6x10^-5m. However, overall size can expand through an overall time contraction (time acceleration, which is now the term I’ll use), (A), where (A) is the time acceleration factor. Thus, the relative overall size of the Universe, relative to the it’s initial size of (C'x1ptu), will equal (A)(change in time)(C'(1ptu) after a time acceleration of (A), where change in time equals approximately T^2, and rate equals C' per ptu..

As the sphere ball actually expands, or just appears to expand because of the contraction of Planck’s constant, new contraction points are created at an appropriate rate to maintain proper Primordial substance density.

As stated earlier, at the initial point in time in this Universe the density of the Primordial substance in the Universe is determined by Hubble's law and the Lorentz transformations, so that the further it is from the center of the single initial non-dilated frame that exists in the Universe at this time the greater the velocity relative to that center, and thus the greater the measured density of the Primordial substance there relative to that at the zero velocity center, by a factor of u, where u is the time dilation factor produced by the velocity. I hypothesis that this amplification caused by relative velocity at the periphery of the Universe is the source of apparent dark matter. When an overall time acceleration occurs for the Universe under these conditions, caused by what is today known as dark energy, this distribution flattens to a relatively uniform measured distribution of the mass-energy into which the Primordial substance evolves.

From observation we know that after approximately 1.5x10^-36 sec (this equivalent to about Tf^1/8 ptu, where Tf = approximately 1 x10^60 ptu, the number of ptu that have passed since beginning of the Universe as measured today) had passed since the beginning of Universal inflation. For purposes of this model we can first say that inflation continues until approximately 5x10^-29 sec, (this equivalent to about Tf^1/4 ptu) having passed since the beginning of the Universe. According to ex-con physics this inflation is actually caused by a time acceleration during this period.

The combination of contraction and expansion associated with time acceleration can be described in terms of basic exponential and logarithmic functions. Expansions and contractions can be described as summations of natural sub expansions and contractions described by Tf^1/2, Tf^1/4, Tf^1/8, Tf^1/16, etc…, where Tf = approximately 1 x10^60 ptu, approximately the apparent age of the Universe today in terms of Planck time units. These can be used to describe eigen lengths and eigen times in the evolution of the Universe.

In terms of ex-con physics we can say that after the initial Tf^1/8 ptu of the Universe, equal to approximately 1.5x10^-36 sec, the rate of time passage is accelerated by a factor of (Tf^1/8) over a period of (Tf^1/8) ptu, this giving a total acceleration factor of (Tf^1/4) during this period of inflation. According to the normal non-accelerated time frame a total of (Tf^¼) ptu, or approximately 5x10^-29 sec, will have passed since the birth of the Universe, while the perceived amount of time that would have passed for the observer in the accelerated frame will be equal to about (Tf^1/8)(Tf^1/8) (Tf^1/4)ptu, this equal to (Tf^1/2)ptu, or about (5x10^-14) sec.

Since overall size is expanded by time acceleration the actual overall size of the Universe after this time acceleration will be equal to (Tf^¼)(1.6x10^-5)m, or about 1.6x10^10 m, equal to the maximum size of the pre-Universe mentioned earlier. From what was explained previously it is also clear that the actual size of Planck’s length from both the normal time perspective and the accelerated time perspective will be equal to approximately 1.6x10^-20 m at this point in time, since from both perspectives Planck’s length will have contracted by the same amount, by a factor of 1/(1x10^15), relative to its original actual size of 1.6x10^-5m. However, Planck length is always perceived to be equal to (1.61x 10^-35 )m as measured from the perspective of an observer in any time reference frame, since while it’s absolute size contracts, it’s relative size, relative to a Universe that appears to expand in every direction at the speed of light, is always perceived to be a constant 1.61x 10^-35m. Observers don’t recognize the contraction of Planck’s length because they are also contracting. Consequently the perceived overall size of the observable Universe at this time for the accelerated observer will be equal to his perceived age of the Universe, about (1x10^30) ptu, times (Planck length 1.6x 10^-35m), this total equal to about 1.6x10^-5m. From the perspective of an observer in the normal time frame, overall size of the observable Universe at approximately 5 x10^-29 sec should be, under non-accelerated conditions, equal to (Tf^1/4 x Planck length), or about 1.6x10^-20 m. However, if both perceive the same sized Universe, the expanded one, the observer in the accelerated frame would see this expanded size as expected, since the appropriate number of Planck time units will have passed in order to have produced such a size, while from the perspective of an observer in the normal time frame the Universe would seem to be much too large considering the amount of time that had passed at the expected rate of expansion of (c). For that observer this then would necessitate an alternative explanation such as a radical “inflation” of space in order to explain this anomaly. I propose that today we are in this situation, not recognizing that the rate at which time passes in the Universe can accelerate and slow, so that getting an actual age based upon a constant rate for the passage of time and a proper understanding of spatial expansion requires a proper understanding of the varying rates for the passage of time that can occur. This is one of the essential consequences of the time acceleration concept made possible by Ex-Con physics.

The observable Universe reaches the end of the rapidly inflating period at an actual radius of approximately 1.6 x10^10m but an apparent radius of 1.6x10^-5m (because of the actual size of Planck’s length at this time is on the order of 1.6 x 10^-20 m) as described previously. The realms that have developed during this rapidly inflating time acceleration period are dominated by quantum principles and are explained in greater detail in the next section. From this point forward the Universe now has the size to accommodate the macro “realm of action”, where gravity and dark matter (amplified gravity) assert their dominance.

The rapidly expanding period for the overall size of the Universe comes to a relatively quick slowing because of the structure of space-time. It is quantized, layered and linked. As explained previously, expansion is generated at a particular time and size for Planck length because the expansion had begun when “layers” of quanta sized space time are released and unravel as overall size extends beyond the range of the binding force (dark matter) that kept it layered, this at approximately (Tf^1/8) ptu, at a size on the order of 5 x10^-28m. It also diminishes, then stops, at particular times and sizes. At the end of this period the linking nature of space-time and gravity grinds expansion to a halt, this occurring over a particular period of time. Also, there are other layers to quantized space that are held in place, or stacked by other levels of binding forces (quantized levels) that have limited range, and once these ranges are exceeded localized areas within the Universe will begin to appear to expand.

Essential to understanding the effects of expansions and contractions on space is remembering that according to Ex- Con physics, accelerated contraction rates of space can make it appear that the Universe, or a section of space within the Universe, is expanding at an accelerated rate when it is actually not. It’s an appearance of expansion due to the increased rate of the spatial production of space that was caused by internal contraction, in the context of an expanded Universe. With the accelerated frame there is an increased rate of internal contraction relative to what would be the normal rate for that point in time. This eventually ceases when time acceleration ceases, but this takes time to affect all areas of space-time. The frame’s increased contraction rate gradually diminishes and ceases, this, again, because of the linked nature of space.

Recall that earlier I had explained inflation as an expansion of space that occurs when the range of a binding force is exceeded so that sections of space of length equal to the Planck length times (Tf^1/8) expands, one after another, until the final unit of that length expands, this occurring when the range of the binding force is reduced to that length, and here the expansion stops, remembering that the range of the binding force shrinks as the Planck length shrinks with time. Basically a stretch of layered space reaches its end. This is like a stretch of folded up string being unraveled until it is straight. Once it is completely unfolded a force is exerted on the straight string. This is what happens to space when it is un-layered. The force exerted then reduces the rate of contraction of space. Consequently after the end of the inflationary period, though overall size is not expanding, internal size is still contracting and in the accelerated frame at an accelerated, though not accelerating rate, than what would be normal for frames at that point in time. This is because as I have explained, when there is a time acceleration the rate of contraction for the Planck length increases relative to what would be normal at that future point in time in a non-accelerated, normal frame, but equal to that of the normal, non-accelerated frame at the non-accelerated point in time. However, when the time acceleration stops, unless it is reduced by some force, the rate of apparent expansion of space, this due to the contraction of space, while no longer accelerating, continues to produce an amplified increase in apparent space, this because of the increased number of units of space that now exist. This necessitates that there be some kind of force that counters the increased rate of contraction that exists so that apparent increases in space are reduced to c. Ultimately this countering force is comprised of both the gravity that is redistributed by the un-layering of space during the time acceleration faze and also an anti-contraction “rebound” force produced by the Universe when it reaches its intrinsic maximum overall size, this force today known as dark matter. Dark matter slows the rate of the apparent expansion of space by slowing down the rate of contraction of space.

The difference between the first period of Primordial substance dominance, this period extending from the initial creation of the Universe until the passing of approximately 1.5 x10^-36 sec, is that then there was only one normal, non-dilated time reference frame with one central point, toward which all entities considered to be in a normal non-dilated frame would contract. After the period of time acceleration, or inflation, there are multiple normal time reference frames distributed throughout the Universe, each defining a point toward which non-dilated entities contract. Gravity influences the positions of these points of contraction, essentially squeezing them together, sometimes to the point of creating black holes. There can still be certain degrees of “localized“ time acceleration after the Universe enters into it’s “macro” phase, but now their effect will be dispersed through a much greater volume of space because of the newly created space, and their expanding effect will only apply to a localized area, with the expansion always corresponding to a contraction of the space outside the expanded area, this contraction caused by gravity. Gravity produces the opposite effect on the size of overall space (and subdivided overall space) than does dark energy, contracting it instead of expanding it. The combination of the expansions caused by the time acceleration generated by dark energy and the contractions caused by the time dilation produced by gravity and dark matter give us the Universe we see today.

Gravitational centers begin as relatively evenly dispersed throughout the Universe. As they increase in strength and cluster, the space between them can begin to expand because a localized time acceleration between the galaxies occurs. This happens because at a certain point the “dark matter”, or “amplified gravity” created by the formation of black holes no longer has the range to reach and interact with other black hole systems, allowing accelerated local expansion to begin. This is what occurs about 10 billion years into the Universe, and this occurs because the average distance between the large gravity producing galaxies come to exceed the range of the amplified gravity produced by a secondary quantum layer of space-time.

Thus we have:

Range of the binding force of dark matter equals approximately Tf^1/8(PL), which equals approximately 5x10^-28m. At Tf^1/8 ptu this also equals the radius of the Universe. Just like Planck’s length, while the range of the bonding force contracts in the absolute sense it remains constant in size relative to other measured entities in the Universe.

Under normal circumstances and in normal time, after Tf^¼ ptu, which equals (Tf^1/8)(Tf^1/8) ptu, or approximately 5x10^-29 sec, while the size of the Universe’s radius in the absolute sense is still equal to about 1.6 x10^-5 m, in the relative sense, as measured in terms of Planck’s length by a person at the same point in time and who is contracting at the same rate as Planck’s length, Planck's length will be measured as approximately 1.61 x10^-35m, and the apparent radius of the Universe will be measured as about 1/Tf^1/4 times this, or (1,61x10^-20 m).

Alternatively, when a time acceleration of factor Tf^1/8 per Tf^1/8 (ptu), equal to C' per (ptu), is applied to the overall size of the Universe at Tf^1/8 ptu for a period of Tf^1/8 normal time ptu, the overall actual size of the Universe expands to a size of approximately Tf^1/4(1.61x10^-5)m, which equals approximately (1.61 x 10^10 m). Overall expansion then stops. Actual overall size is now (Tf^1/4)(1.6x10^-5)m, or approximately 1.6x10^10m, but apparent size is measured as about [(1.6x10^10m)/(1.6x10^-20m)]/[1.61x10^-35m], which equals approximately 1.61x10^-5m, since at this point in time the actual size of Planck’s length is on the order of 1/(1x10^30) as large as the actual size of the Universe at this time. The apparent size of Planck's length at this time is measured as approximately (1,6x10^-20 m), which is about (1x10^15) larger than today’s Planck length. This implies that from then until now the rate of contraction for c is reduced by a factor of the square root per change in T.

At this point, at approximately (1x10^15) ptu, or about 5 x 10^-29 sec, overall size has stopped expanding but Planck’s length is still contracting at such a rate that it will appear that the space of the Universe expands at a rate of Tf^1/4(c). This is because the apparent rate of spatial creation is determined by the rate of contraction of Planck’s length and the radius of the Universe. When the size of the radius of the Universe is on the order of Tf^1/4 larger than normal, this equivalent to 1 x10^15 larger than normal, the rate of spatial creation will also increase by that factor, to Tf^1/4(c).From here forward, because of the expanded overall size, the rate of apparent growth in the size of the Universe is always Tf^1/4, or about 1x10^15 times normal. However, if we recognize that there is also a diminishing in the rate of contraction of Planck's length as time passes, there would then be an expansion in its size relative what it would be in normal time in a normal sized Universe. This diminishing in the rate of contraction reflects the quantum nature of space-time mentioned earlier, where the fully unfolded string or chain asserts a pulling effect on the minimum size possible, the "floor" of the Universe, Plank's length. The reduction is by a factor of Tf^1/8, which then means that the Universe will always look to be larger than expected by a factor of Tf^1/8, as opposed to the Tf^1/4 that would occur without the diminishing in the rate of contraction of c. So, when overall expansion stops at Tf^1/4 ptu, after the next Tf^1/4(Tf^14)ptu the Universe will appear to be Tf^1/8 larger that "normal". So at about Tf^30(5.x10^-44) ptu, or about 5x10^-14 sec, the Universe will appear to be about 5x10^2 m in radius at about 5x10 sec the Universe will appear to be about 5x10^m and at 1.5 x10^9 sec, about 200 years, the Universe will appear to be about 1x10^6 light years in radius.

According to observation, after inflation the apparent expanding rate of the Universe diminishes at such a rate that approximately 1 sec after the birth of the Universe it will have an apparent measured size of approximately 1 light year, while after 10 years this size will appear to be about 300,000 light years. These results match up pretty well with the purely theoretically derived results I've obtained with the contraction approach.

As time goes by the excess apparent expansion of the Universe caused by the remnant of the time acceleration that produced the inflationary period diminishes until it eventually becomes zero. This occurs approximately Tf ptu after the beginning of the Universe, or in other words, today. The apparent rates of expansion though, are never fully realized because of the presence of gravity, including the amplified gravity of dark matter. However, about 4 billion years ago apparent spatial expansion began to increase, this indicating a form of "localized" time acceleration, this due to the dispersion of gravity and increased dispersion of large gravitational sources, plus the range limitations of dark gravity. This increasing rate of spatial expansion is observed today.

---------- the end

Footnotes:

1) As stated, for purposes of describing a photon’s propagation it can be said that as a photon moves toward the periphery of the Universe the space required to produce a contraction powered propagation of velocity c shrinks. We could also say that hypothetically the radius of the Universe is actually, 2tc, not tc, in that direction, thus maintaining a sufficient distance between a photon and the periphery of the Universe in the direction of propagation, and this then enabling contraction to produce an appropriate velocity for photons. However, the actual expanded size of the Universe in the direction of propagation is not necessary, since a proper velocity of c produced by contraction can also be obtained by increasing rates of contraction in the direction of motion as the distance between the photon and the periphery of the Universe shrinks.

2) The rate of contraction per unit of space and the amount of space between any two matter objects in space also creates an apparent motion between the two. Under normal circumstances it is only an apparent motion because it is caused by the contraction of Planck’s length (producing an apparent expansion of the overall size of the Universes), and not by a change in inertia. Before inflation, at t<1.5x10^-36 sec, conditions were different. Under these conditions this apparent motion should be considered to be an actual motion relative to the single non-dilated time reference frame centered at the center of the Universe. This motion is caused by a relative time dilation for matter at that relative position in the Universe. As described in my paper, “Alternative Relativity”, a position in space corresponds with a velocity relative to the non- dilated “center” of the Universe as determined by that particular non-dilated frame. This relative motion may or may not cause a time dilation for matter at that position in space. If there is a time dilation for a matter object at that relative position it is because it possesses a velocity that counters the natural velocity it has toward the center of the frame. If it does not possess a time dilation it is because only apparent velocity exists between it and the center. As the size of the distance separating two matter objects in space approaches the radius of the Universe the apparent motion between the two approaches c. In order for a matter object in this situation to be considered motionless relative to the other matter object which is considered motionless, it must have a change in inertia and move toward the other object with a countering velocity that approaches c. When this occurs the apparent velocity caused by the contracting in the size of space shrinks as the separating distance shrinks. Consequently, by the time that matter object approaches the matter object considered to be stationary it will have velocity, caused by its relative inertia, that approaches c relative to the stationary object.

3) The Universe begins as a single three dimensional point ball of radius app1.6x10^-5m, this being equal to the Planck length at that time. This spherical ball can also represent the base “volume” of space in which a photon exists at the beginning point in time. The radius of this base volume can be considered to be contracting, as does Planck’s length, toward a center point within itself. This center point toward which it contracts follows a path that appears to move away from the center of the sphere representing the motionless point, or center, of the Universe.

For the photon radius of the circular path degenerates according to the equation r= 2pi(R)/T. In the space of the Universe this point ball’s contracting manifests itself as a point in motion, defining a line, a line that appears to increase in length at a rate of c(pi), though this apparent growth in the line is the result of the contraction of (c)1, or the Planck length, our standard of measure. This moving ball point (that writes) rotates its direction of motion at a rate of 1 rotation per Ptu. This rotation is actually the summation of three rotations, or one rotation in three directions, these directions defining the three dimensions. The radius contracts at a rate -C/t^2.

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

III. Energy and Matter Structures

a. The relative positions of photons and matter in space

The contraction hypothesis states that all space and entities within the Universe should be considered to be contracting relative to the overall size of the Universe, this making it appear that the Universe is expanding in every direction at a velocity of c. It can be deduced from this that any length within the Universe is contracting at the rate of L/-(Ut)/(ptu)^2, where L is the length considered in terms of number of Planck lengths and Ut is the number of Planck time units that have past since the beginning of the Universe. This means that a length equal to the base radius of the Universe contracts at a rate of c (which is equal to Planck’s length per Planck’s time period). This can be utilized to describe the motion of a photon through space, at a rate of c, by simply regarding the motion of a photon to be the result of the photon following the contraction of the space between the position of the photon and a position at a distance equal to the base radius of the Universe in a particular direction. Consequently it can be stated that the space between any point in space and any other point in space located at a distance equal to the base radius of the Universe in any direction will contract at a rate of Planck’s length per Planck’s time period, equal to c, the speed of light, and a free photon will follow that contraction in a particular direction, also at a speed of c.

The motion described in terms of contraction above can also be described in terms of an oscillating motion parallel to the direction of propagation. The oscillation would have an amplitude equal to Planck's length, a wavelength equal to 2 times Planck's length and a period equal to 2 times Planck's time. This can be understood in terms of contraction as an increase in the rate of contraction in the direction of propagation for 1 Planck unit of time alternating with a reduced rate of contraction in the opposite direction for a period of 1 Planck unit of time, this resulting in an average velocity of c for the photon.

The above describes the motion of a photon relative to a static position of in space in terms of the overall contraction of the space of the Universe. The static position of space and matter can also be described in terms of the overall contraction rate of the Universe by introducing an alternating direction of contraction, this alternation in direction of contraction occurring over a period equal to Planck’s time. By alternating the direction of contraction of a point in space, that point then can simply be considered to vibrate across a static position. This is also the situation for photons captured in a matter state.

This alternating contraction creates a direction of contraction that can be considered to be orthogonal to all the directions in which free photons move. This orthogonal direction can be considered to possess a length equal to the radius of the Universe, though this length is “folded” by the it’s alternating nature. The extreme example of this is revealed in the Universe as a "singularities". There are other manifestations of the presence of this orthogonal direction, though always in combination with the "normal" directions of space. These parallel the micro-dimensions of string theory. The orthogonal direction can be best described in terms of an analogy. If we considered “normal” space to be represented by a deck of cards laid length-wise end to end so that if each card is considered of unit length one, the total length of the line of cards will be 52.

The orthogonal direction would then be represented by those 52 cards “stacked” one upon another, again this representing the folded over nature of the orthogonal direction. Space can then be considered to consist of the combination of the two orthogonal directions. If the “depth” of the “stacked” direction is 2, then the length of the “normal” direction would be 26, while if the depth is 4, the normal length would be 13. Alternating directions of contraction can also be used to describe an expansion-contraction action of a fundamental unit of space with a size based upon Planck’s length. This does not necessarily mean that space can be considered to have “substance” per say, as this expansion-contraction can be considered to describe variations in the relative position and size of an empty volume of space, but we can say that this is the space that gravity acts upon, or alters. Taking a spherical volume of space with a radius equal to Planck’s length, we can say that over a period of time it’s radius expands to 2 times Planck’s length then contracts to 1 time Planck’s length, keeping in mind that Planck‘s length itself is contracting with time according to the contraction hypothesis. This expanding and contracting sphere can be described in terms of an expanding-contracting circle which, over the period of the expansion-contraction cycle, spins on two perpendicular axis’, one for convenience sake labeled north and south, the other east and west. The circle itself can then be described in terms of a rotating vector which expands and contracts in size between 1 and 2 Planck lengths over one cycle period of rotation. In addition we can say that the period of the expansion and contraction of the length of the vector can vary such that it’s period of expansion and contraction is an eigenvalue of the rotational period, thus equal to 1/n of the rotational period, where n is a whole number value. Also, it must be remembered that the origin of the vector describing this expanding-contracting sphere is oscillating in the manner described previously for a static point in space.

The surface of the sphere just described in terms of a rotating vector can be considered to represent an expansion- contraction fold, or riff. This riff in some ways can be paralleled to the basic vibrating string of string theory. As stated earlier, though, with the contraction approach we discover that there are extended aspects to this riff, or string, and these extended aspects connect each riff to every other riff in the physical Universe.

The structure for space described above can be used to define three basic "realms of action" one being space-time, on which gravity acts, another being the realm of the electro-magnetic force, and the third being the realm where matter forms and nuclear forces operate. Describing these realms in terms of relative sizes and frequencies reveals a fundamental relationship between the age and size of the Universe and Planck's time period, and gravitational, nuclear and electro-magnetic forces.

Referring back to the description of space in terms of a "normal" and an "orthogonal" direction, in the “normal” direction space can be considered to have a length equal to approximately 7.8 x 10^60 Planck lengths, while in the orthogonal direction, which I’ll refer to as space’s depth, this “normal” space can be said to have a depth of “1”. The extreme opposite condition for a segment of space would be that it have the maximum "depth", equal to 7.8 x 10^60, and a "normal" length equal to 1 Planck length. From this description of space we can define particular “special conditions” for space based upon the square root of the base frequency of the Universe, 7.8 x 10^60, and these special conditions create the realms of action mentioned earlier. A realm of space based upon the of the base frequency of the Universe would have a radius of approximately the sq. rt. of 7.8 x 10^60 times Planck’s length, this equal to approx. 4.5 x 10^-5 m, and a “depth” equal to 2.8 x10^30 (the sq. rt. of 7.8 x 10^60).

These realms of action are related to particular contraction rates derived from the basic contraction factor of 1/ Ut, (approx. 1/7.8x10^60). As stated previously, the contraction hypothesis states that all space and entities within the Universe should be considered to be contracting relative to the overall size of the Universe. Thus any length within the Universe is contracting at the rate of L/Ut per (ptu)^2 where L is the length considered in terms of number of Planck lengths and Ut is the number of Planck time units that have past since the beginning of the Universe. This then means that a length equal to the base radius of the Universe contracts at a rate of c (which is equal to Planck’s length per Planck’s time period). Also, though, the size of space between two points separated by half the base radius of the Universe will contract at a rate of c/2, and the size of space between two points separated by 1/3 the radius of the Universe will contract at a rate of c/3, etc. However, it is also possible to use different contraction factors to produce a contraction rate of c. By reducing the length considered and increasing the rate of contraction by an equal factor, the result will still be a contraction rate of c. If we use one over the square root of Ut (this equal to approx. 1/2.8x10^30) as the contraction factor instead of 1/Ut, this increasing the instantaneous rate of contraction (decreasing ptu increases the rate of contraction), but also reducing the length of space being contracted by a factor of one over the square root of Ut, thus from a size equal to the radius of the Universe to approximately 10^-5 m, a velocity of c is still produced by the contraction. As I will explain more later, these lengths and contraction factors define the realms of action where the various types of energy operate with the approximately 1/10^60 factor defining the realm of space-time (length equal to the radius of the Universe) on which gravity acts, and the 1/10^30 factor (length equal to approximately 10^-5 meters) defining the realm of electro-magnetic and nuclear force.

b. Photon structure

In regards to the structure of a photon, though ultimately the complete picture of a photon will reveal that on a certain level it is spread out in every direction into all the space-time of the Universe, for now it can be said that the structure of a photon is the same as that given earlier for a spherical unit of space itself, with the difference being that the origin of the vector representing a photon moves in a particular direction relative to the center point of the stationary spatial sphere, at c. Consequently a photon’s expansion-contraction can be referred to as a displaced spatial expansion- contraction. The center point and the perimeter point of the sphere representing a photon can be represented by a rotating vector which can be divided into the two directional dimensions perpendicular to that of motion. With Planck's time unit considered to be a fundamental time quanta, the perimeters described above by the rotating vectors can be considered to represent an expansion-contraction fold, or riff, which exists as a whole unit over the period of one time quanta, equal to Planck's time. This riff can also be said to be similar to the basic vibrating string of string theory.

As stated, there are extended aspects of a photon. The mechanism for connecting the core of the photon with these extended aspects of the photon is time acceleration. It is actually time accelerated aspects of the core of the photon that are extended through space, giving the photon wavelike characteristics, with larger time accelerations creating greater extension, larger wavelengths and reduced energies. Hypothetically, the least time accelerated photon possible would be one with a period equal to Planck's time, thus a wavelength equal to Planck's length. In this case all measurable energy aspects of the photon are concentrated in a minimal amount of space, this producing the most energetic photon. As with conventional physics, Planck's constant per time period defines the energy of a proton, thus if we say that time acceleration increases the period of a photon's position oscillation relative a base oscillation period of Planck's time, any photon's energy can be described in terms of a corresponding time acceleration.

The origin of the vector described above will move at an average velocity of c, average because there is an oscillating motion associated with the origin's motion, this oscillation in a +/- direction of the photon's velocity. This oscillating motion is distinct from the rotation of the vectors just described as a riff, since, as stated, this is an oscillation of the origin of the fundamental rotating vector describing the riff. This oscillation, which I’ll refer to as the photon's position oscillation, corresponds with a photon's characteristic wavelength and frequency normally associated with it's energy and described by the equation v=E/h, where E is the photons energy, h is Planck's constant and v is the photon's frequency, and the wavelength equals the wave c/v. This description of this oscillation is simplistic in that it is not taking into account the quantum nature of a photon's motion. This aspect of a photon's motion is not yet relevant to this depiction of a photon and is addressed in the section on quantum phenomena.

The photon oscillation distributes the core of the photon, that is, the displaced spatial expansion-contraction that is the core of a photon, through space. This distribution, described by the photon’s wavelength (c/frequency), partly determines the energy of the photon. Basically, the energy of a photon is determined by the concentration over time of the basic expanding-contracting riff (the core of the photon) in an area of space, this concentration revealed by the wave associated with the photon.

A photon's energy is determined by it's vector origin's rate of oscillation and the amplitude of the wave, with a maximum period of oscillation equal to the age of the Universe, this for a photon with minimum possible energy, and with all other possible periods being an Eigenvalues of this period. Also, these other periods will represent multiples of the period of the fundamental photon oscillation (equal to Planck‘s time).

With this description of a photon, the energy of a photon can be understood to be the result of the potential that exists in the rotating vector previously described, with this vector divided into electric and magnetic aspects, and also the contraction action that exists in spatial contraction (the individual units of space) which is related to the potential that exists between any point in space and the other points in space that are located a distance equal to the basic radius of the Universe from that point, this producing the velocity of c for the photon.

c. Matter structure, EMF and nuclear forces

To describe the matter state, the velocity c associated with a photon should be described in terms of a unique oscillating motion, thus a third oscillation, which I’ll refer to as the matter oscillation. This oscillation is distinct from the photon oscillation, and the photon oscillation still exists even when a photon is in the matter state. The matter oscillation period is related to matter's "realm of action".

As explained earlier, there is a "realm of action" for matter, this intrinsic to the structure of space. The basic length of space from which the space for basic matter oscillations is derived is described by the secondary contraction factor of 1/square root of Ut, approximately equal to 1/1x10^30. This length is on the order of 10^-5 meters in length. When this length is divided by the 4th root of Ut (approximately 1x10^15) and then multiplied by the eighth root of Ut (approx. 1x10^7.5) and then divided by the 16th root of Ut (approx.1x103.75) the result is a length on the order of 10^-16.25m, approximately equal to radius of an electron. By continuing the sequence of alternately multiplying and dividing the square root of the previous factor the result is a length on the order of 10^-15m, approximately equal to the radius of nucleons.

One of the consequences of the matter realms of action defined is the production of the electro-magnetic near-field force. Electro-magnetic near-field forces result from the orientation of contraction and expansion actions of charged particles. Charged particles of opposite charge expand and contract in phase, resulting in an attracting force, while those of the same charge expand and contract out of phase, resulting in a repulsing force.

Increasing the mass of matter expands it's radius and reduces it's Compton wavelength. For a nucleon the Compton wavelength and radius are approximately equal in length, on the order of 10^-15m. This is also the radius of one of the realms of action described above for matter. Matter in this state becomes capable of forming nuclear bonds. In the contraction approach this occurs because the concentration of matter reaches a critical point, where the Compton wavelength and the size of the matter realm of action become approximately equal. The reason for this because of the expanding and contracting nature of reality. Once the oscillating frequency of the particle of matter increases to a critical point, this determined by the size of matter's realm of action, the oscillations interact in a unique way, essentially inverting expansion and contraction. This causes them to become, in a sense, turned inside out creating a different "shape" for the realm of action. The fundamental sphere of this space has a radius on the order of 1x10^-15 meters. The surface of the sphere representing a quark of the nucleon becomes the “points of contraction” for the photons comprising the nucleon. Basically the interior of a quark expands toward it's own perimeter while the sphere representing nucleon contracts toward the perimeter of the quark.

------------------------------------------------------------

IV. Gravity

The description of the contraction of space in terms of the expansion and contraction of a group of fundamental units of space can be used to describe the spatial distortions of gravity. As general relativity shows, gravity warps space-time. In the contraction approach each fundamental increment of matter (1 Planck mass) is associated with a fundamental increment of gravity, a graviton, with these gravitational increments causing fundamental increments of space to expand and contract at different rates, this causing the repositioning of matter and energy located within the field.

In a gravitational field space can be considered to expand outwardly from the center of gravity and relative to the position of matter and energy in the field, without affecting the relative positions of the mass and energy, and also then to contract at a faster rate in toward the gravitational center, carrying along with it the matter and energy located in the field, imparting an increase in velocity toward the center of the field to that matter and energy. The expansion and contraction of space can be more clearly be explained in quantum terms. As explained elsewhere in this work, expanding, time rate accelerated aspects of particles, these aspects I call pilot particles, in this case a graviton particle, are rooted in the non-accelerated aspect of a matter-energy particle. These accelerated aspects determine where that particle will exist when the particle begins contracting toward it's "point of contraction" in it's next cycle of contraction. Basically as an entity contracts, this giving it it's presence in space, it has an accelerated aspect to it that expands, and this accelerated aspect determines the location where the next point toward which a particle contracts, somewhere within the expanded aspect. In the case of a graviton, because of it's unique nature it causes the particle's point of contraction to shift toward the gravitational center.

An analogy of this description can been seen if one considers a series of rollers laid side by side spinning in the same direction at rates that are increased for each roller as one moves down the line of rollers in the direction of the motion of the tops of the rollers. The bottom of the rollers move in an equal rate but opposite direction to the top of the rollers, this paralleling the motions that keep positions of gravitons in a gravitational field static. However, when a package is put on the top of the rollers, the motion of the top rollers will push the package at an accelerating in the direction which the tops of those rollers are moving, this while the rollers themselves remain stationary.

With this understanding there is a simple and direct method for describing acceleration due to gravity. Mass can be described in terms of fundamental units, with each fundamental unit of mass equal to 1h/c^2. Each of these units produces a graviton which causes an increase in the rate of contraction of the space between it and other units of mass. It can be said that the sum of the contracting forces of these fundamental mass units which comprise a mass body produces gravitons and associated gravity waves that warp the space-time that contains the body, as says General Relativity theory, causing mass and energy located in that space-time to accelerate toward the center of the group of mass units. In terms of hypothetical gravitons, it can be said that gravitons, each which has aspects that expand throughout the space of the Universe, cause an imbalance in the expansion and contraction of the fundamental units of space that exist in space-time, this giving the fundamental units a structure which causes mass and energy located in that space to contract toward the position of the fundamental unit with the greatest number of gravitons, this being located the center of the gravitational field. Here is a formula for acceleration due to gravity that I derived through the contraction approach using the constants c, Planck's constant and length, which gives results that are equivalent to Newton's gravitational equation: Acceleration = (N)(c)(PL)^2/(d^2), where N=2pi(mc^2) /h, m is the total mass causing the gravitational field, c is the velocity of light, h is Planck's constant, PL is Planck's length and d is the distance between the masses. Here each Planck mass of the system contributes gravitons and waves that produce an increase in velocity of [c(PL)^2]/d^2 for any mass or energy located in any section of space located at a distance (d) from the gravitational center.

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

V. Quantum Relativity

The great paradox of special relativity is that two observers in relative motion to each other perceive reality very differently. The key concepts that describe this difference are time dilation and length contraction, with the observer considered to be in motion necessarily needing to be considered to be observing reality under the influence of a time dilation and length contraction, even though the observer in motion himself does not perceive these, instead perceiving himself to be experiencing time and size normally and the other observer to be in motion. This approach successfully explains why the velocity of light in a vacuum is observed to be constant by all observers in all reference frames. Special Relativity Theory assumes that each observer perceives light as moving at a constant velocity, c, with time dilation and length contraction explaining the different perceptions of the same events by observers in relative motion. Applying a time dilation and a length contraction to a system in motion is necessary if we are to say that the velocity light is constant in all reference frames since it is clear from the perspective of a motionless observer that the movement of an observer in motion changes that observers position relative to free light particles as compared to their positions relative to the motionless observer.

With the contraction approach there is another way to understanding this paradox, a way that opens up many new possibilities. At first glance there is an apparent contradiction between the concepts of a constant and a contracting speed for light. There is a simple explanation for this in regards to the speed of light in the past relative to the present. We never perceive the actual past of anything, only the present condition of what was in the past, and anything from the past, including the speed of light, contracts to the present. Explaining time dilation is slightly more complicated, but the explanation opens up a deeper understanding of the mechanics of physical reality.

According to the contraction approach, in terms of the velocity of light past frames are larger than present frames. A dilated reference frame, while not the same as a past frame, can be correlated to past frames. It can be said that a time dilation by a factor of u corresponds to a past frame in which the internal size of space, as measured by the velocity of light, is larger in size relative to the presents size by a factor of u, since in that time dilated frame less time, by a factor of 1/u, has past relative to the non-dilated frame, so the frame is less contracted. Thus it seems that a dilated frame should have a greater velocity of light than a non-dilated frame, by a factor of u. However, the space of this larger dilated frame will have a faster rate of contraction than the present frame, by a factor of u, so in the context of the non- dilated frame, where time moves faster by a factor of u than in the dilated frame, the dilated frame will appear to be the same size as the non-dilated frame (this is an example of overall size contraction). We can now say that the frame of the observer in motion undergoes a contraction in size and in velocity of light in all directions by a factor of 1/u relative to what should be a larger (by a factor of u) past frame, and this is why a non-dilated motionless observer perceives a dilated frame as he does. Below I illustrate this.

fig.1

According to the contraction approach, in the diagram above (a) represents the size of space after 2 units of times have passed since unity, internal size of space being measured in terms of the velocity of light and represented by the space between the red lines relative to overall size, or unity, this represented by the black circle. In the diagram (b) represents the internal size of space after (4) units of times have passed since unity, measured in terms of the velocity of light and represented by the space between the red lines, relative to overall size, or unity, represented by the black circle. Both these figures reflect a normal, non-dilated rate of time. In the diagram (c) represents what (a) represents but in a dilated condition, with time moving more slowly by a factor of 2. The velocity of light, thus internal size, remains the same, though here represented by less space between the red segments because less time, by a factor of 1/2, will have passed. However, overall size, represented by the black circle at (c) is contracted by a factor of 1/2 relative to the circle at (a), this a consequence of time dilation. Time dilation does not allow overall size to expand to it's normal size in a normal time condition. The black circle in diagram (d) represents a further, apparent contraction of the overall size of the dilated frame, this caused by the velocity of the dilated frame relative to the non-dilated frame. I say apparent because as I show in the next section overall size is not actually contracted but instead displaced, through the velocity vector. The apparent further contraction is by a factor of 1/2 in directions perpendicular to the motion of the dilated frame and a factor of 1/2^2 in directions parallel to motion. In this situation the internal size of space as measured by the velocity of light and represented by the space between the red segments is also apparently contracted, by a factor of 1/u in all directions.

The above depiction represents reality as perceived from the perspective of an observer in a non-dilated reference frame. The next issue is "how is it possible that the observer in motion perceives himself to be in a non-dilated frame motionless frame?" This issue is related to another issue with relativity that I believe has not been adequately explored. Is it possible that while current interpretations of relativity theory properly describe one's perceptions of entities in relative motion and also the perceptions of observers in moving reference frames, it does not in itself sufficiently describe actual positions of entities within space-time. In other words, do current interpretations of relativity simply describe variations in an observer's perceptions of entities and photons in motion, while an entity's and photon's actual positions in space-time are determined by and properly described relative to some preferred reference frame, this preferred frame itself structured in such a way that observers in motion relative to it will perceive themselves to be in a non-dilated state? This issue arises because Relativity says that observers in motion relative to each other will at any given time usually have different determinations for the position of photons propagated from themselves as compared to the other observer's determinations, this meaning that they each will have unique and exclusive non-dilated versions of reality. This then implies that each observers non-dilated perceptions of reality must be given equal weight, or importance, in determining actual positions of entities and photons in space-time, this leading to the conclusion that motion, and thus positions, must only be considered in strictly relative, and not absolute, terms. I propose that there is an interpretation of relativity concepts such that a single primary non-dilated frame can be determined to exist.

According to Relativity Theory, even though a motionless observer will perceive a moving observer to be in a dilated frame the moving observer himself will perceive time in a non-dilated way since he perceives others as moving relative to him. According to this new approach what the person in the moving frame perceives is not an authentic independent non-dilated frame but instead an altered perception of the dilated frame that they are perceived to be in by the motionless observer, who is in a unique primary non-dilated frame. It is the discontinuous nature of space, a quantum concept, that makes this interpretation possible.

### fig. 2

The diagram above shows the differences in perceptions of two observers in relative motion. An observer at position (a) who considers himself to be stationary would perceive another observer moving to the left in the diagram at a velocity of approximately .867 c to be situated at position (b) after 1 second. If the observer moving toward (b) projects a beam of light in a direction perpendicular to motion just as he passes (a) the observer at (a) will perceive that beam to follow a path from (a) to (c) over one second, while the observer at (b), according to the observer at (a), will perceive the beam of light to have moved from just from (b) to (c). Also, over the same period, a beam of light projected by the motionless observer at (a) in a direction perpendicular to motion will be perceived by that observer the to have moved from (a) to (d). When the observer at (b) is considered to be stationary and the one at (a) to be in motion, the positions and paths outlined in red in the diagram apply. The observer at (b) will perceive a beam of light released in a direction perpendicular to motion by a moving observer at (a) just as he passes (b) to follow a path from (b) to (f), while, according to the observer at (b), the observer at (a) perceives the beams path as extending from (a) to (f). Also, over the same period of time, a beam of light projected by the motionless observer at (b) in a direction perpendicular to motion will be perceived by the observer at (b) to have moved from (a) to (e). Clearly each observer in their own non- dilated frame perceives the propagated photons to be in different positions as compared to the others perceptions. The conventional interpretation is that an observer considered to be in motion perceives a co-moving non-dilated reference frame.

As stated, there is an alternative to the conventional understanding of this situation. According to this alternative explanation, there is a preferred non-dilated frame of reference which defines the actual positions of the photons, while observers in all other possible alternative non-dilated frames simply perceive a varied, or distorted, version of the positions of these photons. This distortion can be described in the following way. By assuming that spatial lengths and directions are altered for the observer considered to be in motion, this distortion caused by the motion relative to a primary motionless frame, it is possible to accommodate a non-dilated version of that moving dilated frame within the same space as that dilated frame, thus making it unnecessary to define unique positions for photons propagated from bodies in that dilated state. The "missing" size (a consequence of time dilation) is actually manifested in the velocity vector of the moving frame. We can say that the non-dilated version of the moving dilated fame is "spread" through the velocity vector. The velocity vector "displaces" space from the frame of the moving observer. This space exists in the velocity vector, but this space is not observed as displaced by the moving observer because what he observes appears to him as a continuous linear version of the displaced space. This linear version is perceived by him to be his normal non-dilated frame. This interpretation is possible if one accepts that space-time has a discrete nature. This discrete nature is clearly seen when one considers space as contracting, as explained early, but is also implied in the presently well accepted concept of spatial inflation.

Quantisizing space entails dividing space into ordered segments and recognizing that distances can be contracted and expanded in a dilated frame by altering the positions and angle of orientation of the segmented space relative to their positions in a motionless non-dilated frame. These altered distances can be accounted for by including the velocity vector of the moving frame as a factor in measuring lengths in each direction, this restoring length in all directions to lengths equal to the lengths of the non-dilated motionless frame.

### fig.3

Referring to the diagram above, as explained earlier, the line segment from (b) to (c) represents the path that a motionless observer believes a moving observer would perceive for a beam of light propagated from (b) as he moves from (a) to (b). However, the observer at (b) would consider himself to be motionless and any beam of light he propagate from himself would, in this case, end up twice the length of the (b)(c) segment from himself. As explained earlier, this extra length perceived by (b) will actually exist in the direction of motion. The actual path of the photons perceived by the observer at (b) are the angled line segment (each on the order of Planck's length) shown in red, though he doesn't perceive them as angled. The sum of the length of red segments equal the length from (a) to (c). As the angle of distortion increases with increased motion all perceptions of reality increasing become contained in directions equal to and opposite to that of motion.

We must now consider perceptions of a moving observer in directions equal to and opposite to it's motion. Referring to the diagram below, for a person in a moving dilated frame, represented by (b), perceptions of photon motions in the same direction as his motion is expanded relative to the perceptions of a motionless observer (at (a)) because of a perceived "stacking" of the segments of space in that direction. An analogy of this concept can be seen by comparing a deck of playing cards laid end to end, with this representing space in a normal non-dilated frame, to another deck of cards that are stacked upon each other, this representing the perception of the space through which light moves in the direction of motion by an observer in motion. The sum of the lengths of the stacked cards equals the total length of the cards layered end to end, though the stacked cards can be contained in a much smaller amount of space. This is represented by the thick red line in the diagram below. In the opposite direction for the moving observer perception is "contracted" relative to the motionless observer's through the spreading of the sections of space through space. This is represented in the diagram by the red line segments separated by spaces. In all directions all perceptions of the velocity of photons a moving observer can be described by a combination the descriptions of perceptions of perpendicular and parallel propagation given above. Below I illustrate this .

### fig.4

In the opposite direction for the moving observer perception is "contracted" relative to the motionless observer's through the spreading of the sections of space through space. This is represented in the diagram by the red line segments separated by spaces.

In all directions all perceptions of the velocity of photons a moving observer can be described by a combination the descriptions of perceptions of perpendicular and parallel propagation given above. Below I illustrate this .

### fig.5

In the diagram above, when an observer moves from (a) to (b) he will perceive that a beam of light released by another observer at (a) just as he passes (a) will appear to move along a path from (b) to (c), this because in his eyes observer (a) is in motion while he himself is stationary. According to the contraction approach though what he actually sees is a discontinuous angled series of path segments from (b) to (d), represented in the diagram in red, with the sum of the lengths of these segments equal to the length between (b) and (c), this because in the contraction approach presented here there is a single primary frame which determines all actual relative positions for propagated photons in all reference frames and moving observers perceive distorted versions of these positions. Thus, what the moving observer sees in the diagram above is simply a distorted version of the path between (b) and (d).

The interpretation described above supports the assertion that past reference frames are in fact larger than the present frame, with their larger size relative to an authentic motionless non-dilated frame concealed in an orthogonal dimension contained within the motion vector of the moving entity. This is because when we, as a motionless observer, recognize the "extra space" created by the motion of the dilated frame as described above we must also then must acknowledge the expanded nature of a dilated frame and of the past. This expanded nature of the past is actually also revealed in two other ways the increased mass of matter in a dilated state because of motion, and the increased velocity of objects in motion when that velocity is considered in terms of dilated time.

If the above descriptions reflect the true nature of perceptions in space-time, then there must be some type of connecting mechanism between spatial segments. This connecting mechanism can be found in another concept unique to contraction physics time contraction (acceleration). The following is a description of this concept.

A consequence of the contraction approach to relativity concepts is that it is possible to describe what is the opposite of dilated time reference frames, that is, contracted (accelerated) time reference frames. Contracted time reference frames are possible with the contraction approach because with the contracting nature of things a new reference point exists the size of the past, present and future reality of an entity. Since the past and the future is differentiated from each other and from the present by size and rates of contraction, motion can no longer be considered as simply relative to other entities but must also be considered in terms of positions and size relative to the past of an entity.

In regards to accelerated time reference frames, just as before when I described dilated frames, in terms of contraction there seems to be a contradiction between the concept of contracting frames, which implies that future frames are relatively smaller, and the expansion caused by time acceleration. The reasoning that resolves this apparent paradox is the same as that which explains the contracted nature of dilated frames. Since future frames are smaller, their contraction rates relative to a normal present frame are less, and this can cause a relative expansion, not in the size of the accelerated frame as measured in terms of it's velocity of light but in terms of it's dispersion into the space of the present frames. This concept can be paralleled to our presently accepted understanding of the rapid expansion of space at the beginning of the Universe, where the velocity of light does not increase with the expansion, even though the Universe is expanding faster than the speed of light, but instead, pockets of space inflate, causing the rapid expansion.

Accelerated time reference frames have the opposite characteristics to those of dilated frames. Time is accelerated, length is expanded and mass is diminished. In terms of the contraction approach it also means that the overall size is expanded and the internal size of space, as measured by the velocity of light is contracted. Below i illustrate this.

### fig.6

In the diagram above the space within the parenthesis at (a) represents the overall size of space in a normal non- dilated time reference frame while the two line segments within the parenthesis represent the velocity of light. The space and line segments within the parenthesis at (b) represent the overall size of space and velocity of light respectively in a time reference frame which is accelerated by a factor of two relative to the normal frame represented at (a). As stated before, accelerated time reference frames have characteristics that are opposite to those of dilated time reference frames. Overall size is expanded while internal size as measured by the velocity if light is contracted in size. With the concept of accelerated time reference frames three characteristics of nature can be explained. The "dark" energy that drives "inflation" can now be understood as simply anti-gravity caused by time acceleration. Also, the connecting element necessary to unite segmented space as was mentioned earlier can be understood to be simply extremely time accelerated particles. These particles can have almost no mass (sub-Planckian) and can travel almost instantaneously through any expanse of space because of the nature of time acceleration, where increases in the degree of time acceleration will reduce mass and expand a particle's possible positions in space. And finally, these particles can be described as pilot particles which ultimately determine positions and mass of sub-atomic particles, revealing a deterministic solution for quantum related problems.

## -------------------------------------------------------------

VI. Time Accelerated Quantum Mechanics

The explanations in the previous sections of this work regarding the preferred and accelerated time reference frames lead to a new possibility for describing quantum phenomena. Conventional interpretations of special relativity assume that the only position determinations that can be physically verified are those made by the observer in the relevant motionless non-dilated frame. However, this presumes that the observer can perceive only observations which are unique to his own frame, ignoring the possibility that accelerated time reference frames can in a manner influence the velocities and positions of entities as perceived by a motionless observer. I now propose that position determinations on the sub-atomic scale must be made relative to a preferred reference frame, and these positions will include the influence of accelerated time reference frames. Accepting that this is the case, it then becomes possible to account for the quantum nature of motion using the concept of time acceleration. Essentially, the premise is that at microscopic distances velocity and position determinations are influenced by two extra reference frames, these being a time reference frame that is accelerated relative to the dilated frame, this creating an alternative non-dilated frame, and also, a "stretched out" space-time reference frame that is accelerated relative to both the motionless non-dilated frame and the moving alternative non-dilated frames. Consequently, the complete a picture of a moving mass particle must include it's dilated state, it's alternative non-dilated state, and it's accelerated state, all existing simultaneously, and all simultaneously determining the positions and energy of sub-atomic particles.

Earlier I explained how a frame that is accelerated relative to a non-dilated frame can be understood to be spread out as compared to a non-dilated frame. In that explanation it was presumed that the accelerated frame simply had a linear motion relative to the non-dilated frame, but this is not necessarily the case. I propose that on the sub-atomic scale accelerated and non-accelerated reference frames should be considered to move in an oscillating motion relative to each other, these oscillations defined relative to the point within the non-dilated frame where there exists zero motion relative to the accelerated frame. This oscillatory relationship reflects the fact that the space of an accelerated frame is simultaneously "stretched" in size and "folded" in shape relative to the space of a non-dilated reference frame. I propose that this oscillating motion is in fact in a manner observed from the perspective of an observer in the motionless non- dilated frame, and the observable results are what we now consider to be the consequences of quantum phenomena. These observed variations in the positions of sub-atomic particles should actually be understood to be the result of the existence of both alternative non-dilated reference frames and accelerated time reference frames, and it is because of the nature and structure of space-time as determined by contraction that these accelerated frames exist and become relevant frames of reference for determining the positions of sub-atomic particles.

In regards to a particle's total mass-energy as measured when it is considered to be in an accelerated frame as compared to a non-dilated or dilated frame, it's rest mass in terms of an accelerated frame will be less than it's rest mass as measured in terms of a non-dilated and dilated frame. However, because the particle is moving faster relative to the accelerated frame as compared to the non-dilated frame, energy is added by this extra motion, and consequently it's total mass-energy as measured from the accelerated frame is the same as that measured from the non-dilated frame.

The fact that a particle which is defined as being in an accelerated state has a velocity relative to the zero-velocity of the relevant accelerated time reference frame explains why a time acceleration for the particle is not easily detected from the perspective of a non-accelerated, non-dilated frame. The velocity relative to the zero-point velocity of the relevant accelerated frame puts the particle in a dilated state relative to that frame. This time dilation counters the time acceleration, and the result is a time state that approximates the original dilated state of the particle. The difference between a particle in this combination accelerated-dilated state and a particle in a simple conventional dilated state is reflected in both measured energy and position variations, these normally attributed to quantum phenomena.

The concept of a particle state being defined as a combination of an accelerate and dilated state parallels the concept introduced in the previous section on special relativity which revealed that the distribution of matter within the Universe is determined by a multitude of non-dilated frames, and not just the non-dilated frame of a particular observer.

The variations in position due to the oscillating motion between an accelerated frame and a non-dilated frame as previously described can be made to be consistent with the variations predicted by the probability wave of quantum theory to a degree, but the explanation above still doesn't provide a complete solution though, because of the non- localized condition that is observed for particles under certain conditions. The solution to this problem lays in a proper understanding the structure of frames that are accelerated relative to a non-dilated frames, as determined by the contraction approach to understanding space-time, which shows that accelerated frames are actually expanded relative to non-dilated frames. This is not a straight forward expansion though, as there is a contraction associated with it. The best way to conceive of this is to view space in terms of individual units laid end to end, with these units contracting in size, but also separating from each other, as they enter into a time acceleration. In a particular way, space "breaks up" and separates when it is accelerated relative to the normal non-dilated time reference frame. This separation exists only from the perspective of someone in the normal non-accelerated frame though, since from the perspective of someone in the accelerated frame space remains continuous, since for this observer this frame is the normal reference frame.

With the above explanation there are now have two aspects of time acceleration, one aspect measured relative to a dilated time frame, this producing an alternative non-dilated frame and the local variations in the expected positions for microscopic particles, while the other aspect is measured relative to the normal non-dilated frame, this manifested as a seeming discontinuity in space when perceived from the perspective of the non-dilated frame, though space is still continuous from the perspective of an observer in the accelerated frame. Ultimately this leads to the description of a particle in terms of two distinct parts, or aspects, one part being that which is substantially measured, and which partakes in the previously mentioned oscillating motion, and the other part being a type of ghost particle that can only be indirectly measured, but which indicates, like a pilot wave, where a particle will manifest itself in the future. A proper way to picture this is to see that while the measurable part of the particle goes through a cycle of oscillations at the local level at a particular position in space during the period of that cycle, the ghost particle moves to another point in space (or the same point under some conditions) as determined by it's accelerated state. At the end of the period of the cycle of local oscillations the measurable aspect of particle disintegrates at it's current position while beginning another cycle of oscillation at the new location as determined by the ghost particle.

In regards to mass-energy, we can say that the ghost particle has an undetectable minuscule mass (possibly sub- Planck based), with it's measure based upon the accelerated time reference frame associated with it. This ghost particle actually represents the non-dilated version of the particle that is produced by it's accelerated condition. Consequently, though the ghost particle moves relative to an observer in the normal non-dilated frame, in terms of this accelerated frame it is motionless. This means that any actual particle that we in a non-dilated reference frame observe in motion is also moving at a certain velocity relative to this accelerated frame's motionless position as represented by the ghost particle. It is this motion that produces the variability in the mass-energy of sub-atomic particles that we observe in measurements of the particle made from the perspective of a non-dilated frame.

Time accelerations and non-dilated versions of dilated frames reveal themselves in the quantum variations in position and mass-energy we observe in sub-atomic particles. With the time accelerations just described we should be able to exactly account for all variations in positions and energy for microscopic particles as observed from the perspective of an observer in a non-dilated frame, including the seemingly discontinuous changes.